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        1 - Investigation of the Relationship among factors affecting Science Development, Technology Development and Economic Growth in Iran using System Dynamics
        Hooman Shababi mahmood yahyazadehfar saeid rasekhi meysam shirkhodaei
        Knowledge-Based services and high-tech industries contributions in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of countris are increasing, since these contributions are reaching about 40 percent in countries such as USA. Entrance of Knowledge and technology elements in production func Full Text
        Knowledge-Based services and high-tech industries contributions in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of countris are increasing, since these contributions are reaching about 40 percent in countries such as USA. Entrance of Knowledge and technology elements in production function means an enormous increase in returns and ignorance from the daily importance of technology in economic growth and development will lead to a gap between developed and poor countries, exponentially. The present research reviewed the related literature of the three fields of science development, technology development and economic growth and their relationships thoroughly, and found 14 cofactors that affect the three fields and their relationships. Using experts' suggestions (13 Iranian experts which resides in Iran and abroad), the cofactors were applied in system dynamics approach in Vensim software to test the relationship and dynamics of the three fields in Iran in four different scenarios and in a 10-year period. The results showed that the three fields are interact with eachother in a complex, interwined structure in Iran and political- economic convergence is the key factor in this relationship. The results will be useful for policymakers of the three fields in Iran.   Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Role of Research and Development Centers in System of Innovation (R&D)
        mohsen keshavarz mohsen rahimi مجيد  سليمي
        : One critical factor which has given rise to the gap among countries is the difference among them regarding their capabilities for fostering innovation in all aspect including political, economic, culture and social. Given the rapid technology advancement so far, and w Full Text
        : One critical factor which has given rise to the gap among countries is the difference among them regarding their capabilities for fostering innovation in all aspect including political, economic, culture and social. Given the rapid technology advancement so far, and with regard to predictions as to the continuation of the existing trend in the future, one can say the gap will be enlarged in the years to come if no precautions are taken. One way to cope with the challenge is to improve the innovation capacity within the country through increasing research and development activities in all economic sectors countries with more costs spent on research are more developed technologically and industrially. Therefore, the article seeks to explore the role of research and development centers in innovation; the methodology used to achieve this goal was documental analysis. Findings indicate there ought to be appropriate interactions among the main components of "National Innovation System", i.e. government, industry, university and other research institutions; these interactions need to be accomplished through expanding research and development activities and making applicable the finding of research. Therefore, one can conclude there exists a direct relationship between research and innovation and hence the actual development in all countries, especially Iran .So, the obstacles impeding the progress of research and innovation (some of which have been reviewed in this study) should be abolished. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Measuring the Impact of Human Capital Promotion on Economic Growth in Selected Countries of OPEC
        Roya Al emran Seyed Ali  Al Emran
        One of the most important discussions in recent decades is human capital. Human capital, or in other words, quality of labor or institutionalization of knowledge in human, increases production and economic growth. Although human capital has been discussed since the clas Full Text
        One of the most important discussions in recent decades is human capital. Human capital, or in other words, quality of labor or institutionalization of knowledge in human, increases production and economic growth. Although human capital has been discussed since the classical period in economics , modeling and presentation of national models of economic growth, in which, human capital is considered, captured the attention of researchers in recent decades. In classical models, production was assumed to be the function of labor and capital; however, the quality of labor or human capital must be also considered in this function as an effective factor. The impact of human capital and technological knowledge on economic growth is commonly accepted. This study aims to measure the impact of human capital promotion on economic growth in selected countries of OPEC. Economists have presented different indicators for measuring human capital, one of them is the amount of government expenditure on education. In this study, the growth rate of government total education spending, along with other influential variables (R&D expenditure, Investment) are analyzed through the panel data approach for the period of 1998 to 2007.The research results of this method, indicate that the impact coefficient of all variables are confirmed by theoretical bases, coefficients for all variables are significant, and human capital has a positive effect on economic growth. According to the research findings, improving human capital by increasing labor skills and capabilities, which leads to increase in productivity and production, along with enhancing research and development expenditure is recommended in order to achieve higher economic growth. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Role of Intellectual Properties Rights in Innovation of Developing Countries
        Neda Garshasbi niya Kamareddin Badry Vig
        Much debate in the field of intellectual property rights and its role in economic development is going on. This paper out of four economic variables that affected by IPR, FDI, trade, innovation, public health, genetic resources and traditional knowledge discuss about th Full Text
        Much debate in the field of intellectual property rights and its role in economic development is going on. This paper out of four economic variables that affected by IPR, FDI, trade, innovation, public health, genetic resources and traditional knowledge discuss about the effects of stronger IPRs in developing countries on innovation. Here innovation is defined base on OECD statements. Innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), process, new marketing method or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. Where the cost of research is high and there is much risk for the return of the investment, countries use different strategies to encourage the innovation. Implementing a strong IPR regime is an important way to motivate researchers and firms for R&D activities. An empirical study has been conducted on 118 countries, both developing and developed countries. It is concluded that stronger IPR does not have direct effect on economic growth or increasing innovation in developing countries while a direct and strong relationship between these variables are visible in developed countries. The positive role of IPR in the economic of developing countries must be accounted, in addition these countries are under the pressure of developed countries to strength their IPR regime, so the countries must develop their IPR law in a manner to prepare most effective way for improving their economic. Manuscript Document
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        5 - The role of research and development in economic development of the countries
        Mahnaz Rabiei
        The cost of research and development and technology improvement result in cost decrease, productivity improvement and export growth. New Technologies cause enhancement in production factors and create further variations in productions. Furthermore, technologies create c Full Text
        The cost of research and development and technology improvement result in cost decrease, productivity improvement and export growth. New Technologies cause enhancement in production factors and create further variations in productions. Furthermore, technologies create changes in comparative cost of production, and increase the comparative advantages in corporations and ultimately in the countries. Research, development and innovation costs, and new technologies allow corporations to improve their production abilities; thus resulting in capacity growth, cost reduction, quality improvement, and timely delivery. Unique characteristics of Innovation and new ideas are not challengeable. For example, achievements in a new method, will give others easier access, without causing interruptions to the previous users. Therefore, such products are produced once and can be mass-produced then after. In this article, the importance of research and development in the growth of value added through an endogenous growth is explained. While revising Romer's endogenous model of growth, a mathematic model for Iran's economic growth was made and the effects of R&D, spillovers resulted from R&D, labor force, physical capital and human resource based on OLS was evaluated. While considering the effects of innovation management in R&D improvement, other effects of innovation management were also analyzed. This article intends to analyze the effects of R&D throughout the country and innovation management within corporations to obtain economic growth Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Impact of Social Collaboration on Economic Growth
        Parvaneh   Salatin    
        Nowadays there is another producing element beside the human, financial and economic capitals, named social capital, which is an aspect of social cooperation. This concept refers to connections and communications of members of a network as a valuable source which cause Full Text
        Nowadays there is another producing element beside the human, financial and economic capitals, named social capital, which is an aspect of social cooperation. This concept refers to connections and communications of members of a network as a valuable source which cause achievement of goals by creating norms and mutual trust. The governments need the cooperation of public, specially the elites, in execution of economic plans because the cooperation of elites and economic brokers in execution of economic policies of the government shall facilitate the achievement of goals and the feedbacks of the elites to the economic plans of the government may amend the weak points of the government plans and increase the efficiency of the performance of the government. On the other hand the trust of the people to the government may increase their partnership in execution of government plans and political support from the government in such a way that the government may perform its economic, political and social plans more effectively in case of partnership and cooperation of people. the main objective of this paper is analyzing the effect of social cooperation on economic growth in selected middle income countries. The results of the model using fixed effects and Generalized Method of Moments in selected countries in the 2013-1994 shows that the social cooperation has a positive and significant effect on economic growth in selected countries. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Analyzing the Strategies for Business Growth and Development in the Field of Industries and Mines (Case Study: South Khorasan Province)
           
        Today, developing and industrial emerging countries attempt to apply effective policies in industrialization process using comparative and competitive advantages in each field of activity. Improvement index of business space is one of the most important indexes, which d Full Text
        Today, developing and industrial emerging countries attempt to apply effective policies in industrialization process using comparative and competitive advantages in each field of activity. Improvement index of business space is one of the most important indexes, which draws the status of micro-economy activity space. This study is aimed to investigate the factors affecting business growth and development in South Khorasan industries and Mines. By literature review and experts monitoring, 5factors (financial and capital factor, human factor, raw materials factor, production technology factor, sales market factor) and 20 components were identified. Then, using simple random sampling method, 125 managers of industries and Mines sphere were selected and study questionnaire was distributed among them. After data analysis using single-sample t tests and Friedman test, the results showed that external exchange, available capital and product sales market are the most important components in business development is South Khorasan Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - FINANCIAL STRUCTURE-ECONOMIC GROWTH NEXUS IN MENA COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM PANEL DATA APPROACH
        مهدی  تقوی تیمور  محمدی عباس  شاکری محمد  نصر اصفهانی
        The financial structure is always considered as a major factor responsible for economic growth in a country. Based on various economic theories, there would be a positive relationship between the financial system and economic growth rate. In fact, a country with a bette Full Text
        The financial structure is always considered as a major factor responsible for economic growth in a country. Based on various economic theories, there would be a positive relationship between the financial system and economic growth rate. In fact, a country with a better financial system can generate a larger Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which stands for a positive economic growth. However, it should be noted here that in the real world, there is not homogeneity in financial mechanism and economic growth, hence, we cannot completely set theory in the reality. According to this brief state of the problem, the main purpose of this research is exploring the financial structure (i.e. Financial development and financial architecture ) – economic growth nexus through the Panel Cointegraiton approach, FMOLS and Panel LS estimations over 19802011 for eight countries in the MENA region. The empirical findings report clear support for the long run relationship between financial development and economic growth, while do not provide any statistically significant relationship between financial architecture and economic growth. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - Explaining the Role of Insurance in Developing Financial Institutions and Economic Growth in Selected Countries Using Dynamic panel Data Regression Methods and Generalized Momentum Estimation (GMM)
        Mohammad  Nasr Isfahani Teimour   Mohammadi
        One of the key factors of countries’ planning in order to reach a stable long-term economic growth is existence of a proper financial market. Based on economic literature, efficient financial markets can positively affected economic growth of a nation. Furthermore, inve Full Text
        One of the key factors of countries’ planning in order to reach a stable long-term economic growth is existence of a proper financial market. Based on economic literature, efficient financial markets can positively affected economic growth of a nation. Furthermore, investigation of effects of insurance which under a favorable financial market can make a direct and indirect influences on economic growth is mainly crucial for scholars. The main purpose of this study is to find out the effects of insurance and financial Structure on economic growth of 40 selected countries using a panel data approach over the period of 2000-2012. The results revealed that financial structure in some cases has significant effect, while in a number of cases, it shows insignificant impact. Also, the financial development index has a negligible negative effect on the economic growth of advanced countries and in the same way, this variable in MENA countries has a negative impact on economic growth. Moreover, this variable has various coefficients in several groups of countries. Furthermore, the findings depicted a positive significant effect of insurance on economic growth in advanced economies, while it negatively affects the economic growth in American nations. Manuscript Document
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        10 - The function of women in a resistance economy
        sakineh ganjkhanloo Maryam Alizade
        The function of women in the resistance economy is one of the important and influential reasons in society, family, and particularly in the society's economy. Paying attention to the principles governing female personality, the origin, and source of the distinction betw Full Text
        The function of women in the resistance economy is one of the important and influential reasons in society, family, and particularly in the society's economy. Paying attention to the principles governing female personality, the origin, and source of the distinction between function in male and female resistance economics also cause biological, behavioral, economic, and legislative differences. In religious thought, although employment is considered a right for women, it is never imposed on them as an economic obligation. Creating attitudes of resistance economy can pave the way for a healthy and refreshing family and society, away from harm. In this article, documentary methods are used to deal with the consequence of economic actions in Islamic lifestyle researchers, achieving a resistant economy and transformation in the family. Which first defines women, family, society, and resistance economy, and then the undeniable effects of women, both positively and negatively, are considered. Finally, according to the findings, it attempts to realize the trend of changes in the future based on the emphasis on the resistance economy. Manuscript Document