• List of Articles Validity

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Investigating Validity of Probative Evidences and Its Application in Jurisprudence and Islamic Law
        Seyed Abolqasem  Naqibi Elham  Maghzi Najafabadi
        Abstract: The validity of probative evidences is one of the fundamental discussions in methodology of religion. Probative evidences (religious circumstantial evidences) are among the evidences needed for interpretation and inference of the Sharia rules, the signifiers o Full Text
        Abstract: The validity of probative evidences is one of the fundamental discussions in methodology of religion. Probative evidences (religious circumstantial evidences) are among the evidences needed for interpretation and inference of the Sharia rules, the signifiers of which–in addition to comparative signified–have sometimes evidentiary effects. Evidentiary effect in methodology means the religious effects attributable to the rational instruments, necessities and requirements, either ordinary or accidental, which can be taken as evidence or codes of action. In case of the validity of probative evidence and its reasons, three theories may be put forth: Some jurists attribute the nature of evidence, in terms of proof, depending upon its validity thus rule on absolute validity of probative evidence. Some others, however believing in absolute validity of the probative evidence, have attributed the reason to the quality of proof and attribution of the reasons for validity of the evidence. The third group of jurists believe in a detailed manner which draws a line of separation between various types of evidence and probative evidences. Apparently, to study the validity of probative evidences, the reasons for validity of the evidence must be taken into consideration. Therefore, if the reason behind validity of the evidence is an instance of compulsory obedience, its probative reasoning shall not be valid but if it is based on logical and consistent usages (which is true in the case of the majority of cases) the criterion will be constraints in logical usages and related terms. This is because men of reason at times take something as evidence while at the same time reject its probative values, such as evidence on probation, possession, presumption of marriage bed, and confession. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Legal-Jurisprudential Analysis of Conditional Sale Option in Relation to Transactions with Right of Restitution
        Saeed  Karami
        Abstract: There is divergence of opinions on contracting or pledging in optional sale. Imamiyah jurists endorse the act and consider it as an instance of sale in nature. Sunni jurists identify optional sale as bay’ al-Wafa or buyback sale, associating it with a pledge ( Full Text
        Abstract: There is divergence of opinions on contracting or pledging in optional sale. Imamiyah jurists endorse the act and consider it as an instance of sale in nature. Sunni jurists identify optional sale as bay’ al-Wafa or buyback sale, associating it with a pledge (rahn) contract. The conditional sale can be analyzed in two ways: First, the conditional sale involving the contractual relationship between mortgagor (seller) and mortgagee (buyer) stipulated in Article 34 of the Law on Registration of Deeds; Second, the conditional sale that does not govern the contractural relationship between the seller and buyer, and it is a real sale under articles 485-462 of the Law. The conditional sale governing the contractural relationship between the mortgagor and mortgagee is an instance of transaction with the right of restitution (Article 33 of the Law). This is why the law has considered the request for registration of the property in conditional sale as a right for the debtor, because in this type of conditional sale the buyer does not intend to conclude a contract of sale. Any negligence of this criterion will raise ambiguities: First, any conditional sale will be taken as the one with the right of restitution, whereas it is otherwise. Second, the real conditional sale has been well stipulated in Article 399 of the Civil Code; therefore, all sales stipulated in Article 399 of the Civil Code must be considered as the transactions with the right of restitution. It is clear that the existence of the element of option in a sale contract does not mean it is an instance of transaction with the right of restitution. Articles 33 and 34 of the Law on Registration of Deeds are not exclusive to provisions of Article 459, because this article is not about the conditional sale governing the contractual relationship between the mortgagor and mortgagee, whereas articles 33 and 34 of the Law govern such relationship. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - A Study of Conceptual Authority in Discerning the Condition of Banning Halal and Authorizing Haram in Imamiya Jurisprudence
        Seyed Abolqasem  Naqibi Sajjad  Razaghi
        Abstract: The condition of banning Halal and authorizing of Haram is one of the most important discussions in Imamiya jurisprudence. Jurists consider the proviso enforceable in case the condition does not ban Halal nor authorize Haram. There is difference of opinion amo Full Text
        Abstract: The condition of banning Halal and authorizing of Haram is one of the most important discussions in Imamiya jurisprudence. Jurists consider the proviso enforceable in case the condition does not ban Halal nor authorize Haram. There is difference of opinion among them on conceptual authority in discerning the condition of banning Halal and authorizing Haram. Some jurists like Sheikh Ansari are of the opinion that the condition leading to authorization of an unchangeable rule on Haram and banning an unchangeable rule on Halal, shall be considered an instance of banning Halal and authorizing of Haram. Some other jurists, like Mohaqeq Yazdi and Nayini believe that the verdicts must first be divided into mandatory and conditional rules before expressing any authorization or banning. In mandatory rules, the late Naraqi – like Sheikh Ansari – only considers commitment to unchangeable rules (Wajib or religiously obligatory act and Haram or religiously forbidden) against the Book and Sunnah or tradition, however, commitment to act or avoid to act in permissible rules is allowed. Also, he says any change in conditional rules by setting a condition is against the Sharia law. Some other jurists, like Imam Khomeini, have resorted to the common law in expressing the quality of authority in its discernment. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Study Validity and Reliability of Digital Citizenship Scale in Birjand City
        Sadegh Hamedinasab Someyyeh Bakhshiparikhani
        Due to the growing number of new media, the number of digital citizens in society is increasing day by day. A digital citizen is a citizen who has the ability to use the online services provided by the government of each country to the best of his ability. The purpose o Full Text
        Due to the growing number of new media, the number of digital citizens in society is increasing day by day. A digital citizen is a citizen who has the ability to use the online services provided by the government of each country to the best of his ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of digital citizenship scale in Birjand city. The statistical population of this study was all individuals aged 18 years and older in Birjand city, of which 384 were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The instrument used in this research is a digital citizen questionnaire, Chui, Glassman and Kristol (2017). Content validity of the Persian version was verified according to the opinion of the experts. Factor structure of digital citizenship questionnaire was investigated using both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The exploratory factor analysis showed that 4 substances have high yields in more than one factor; these materials were eliminated, and finally the final model included four factors; Internet political activity, technological skills, critical and local-global awareness. It came out with 22 substances. For reliability of this tool, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used, which coefficient for its components was 0.79- 0.99. Given that the validity and reliability indicators of the Persian version of the Digital Citizen scale were all favorable, it can be used as a valid and reliable tool to identify digital citizens. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Evaluation of Psychometric Adequacy of Women's Sexual Welfare Scale in Married Women: Validity, Reliability and Factor Structure
        reza chalmeh فاطمه عبداللهی
        The aim of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Female Sexual Well-Being Scale in Iranian married women. For this purpose, a sample of 297 married women (with a mean age of 33.7 years and an age range of 24 to 45 years) was Full Text
        The aim of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Female Sexual Well-Being Scale in Iranian married women. For this purpose, a sample of 297 married women (with a mean age of 33.7 years and an age range of 24 to 45 years) was selected by simple random sampling. The Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire (Reef, 1995) and Women's Sexual Well-Being Scale (Rosen et al., 2009) were completed by the sample group. The validity of this scale was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods, convergent and simultaneous validity. The reliability of the scale was evaluated by two methods of Cronbach's alpha and halving. The results of factor analysis using principal component method and varimax rotation showed that this scale consists of 4 factors with the titles of interpersonal relationships, cognitive-emotional domain, physical stimulation and orgasm satisfaction, which is more than 66% of the variance. They explain the whole. The convergent validity of this scale indicated a satisfactory correlation between the dimensions of the female sexual well-being scale and the total score. To determine the simultaneous validity of the scale, the correlation between the dimensions of the female sexual well-being scale and the psychological well-being scale was used, which indicated a favorable correlation (p <0.001). Cronbach's alpha and halving coefficients for the whole scale and its dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.82. The final result is that the Persian form of the Women's Sexual Welfare Scale has good validity and reliability in Iranian society and can be used in research, educational and clinical situations. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Psychometric Adequacy of Women's Sexual Well-being Scale in Married Women: Validity, Reliability and Factor Structure
        reza chalmeh fatemeh abdolahi
        The aim of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Female Sexual Well-Being Scale in Iranian married women. For this purpose, a sample of 297 married women (with a mean age of 33.7 years and an age range of 24 to 45 years) was Full Text
        The aim of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Female Sexual Well-Being Scale in Iranian married women. For this purpose, a sample of 297 married women (with a mean age of 33.7 years and an age range of 24 to 45 years) was selected by simple random sampling. The Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire (Reef, 1995) and Women's Sexual Well-Being Scale (Rosen et al., 2009) were completed by the sample group. The validity of this scale was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods, convergent and simultaneous validity. The reliability of the scale was evaluated by two methods of Cronbach's alpha and halving. The results of factor analysis using principal component method and varimax rotation showed that this scale consists of 4 factors with the titles of interpersonal relationships, cognitive-emotional domain, physical stimulation and orgasm satisfaction, which is more than 66% of the variance. They explain the whole. The convergent validity of this scale indicated a satisfactory correlation between the dimensions of the female sexual well-being scale and the total score. To determine the simultaneous validity of the scale, the correlation between the dimensions of the female sexual well-being scale and the psychological well-being scale was used, which indicated a favorable correlation (p <0.001). Cronbach's alpha and halving coefficients for the whole scale and its dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.82. The final result is that the Persian form of the Women's Sexual Welfare Scale has good validity and reliability in Iranian society and can be used in research, educational and clinical situations. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Normalization of the Cognitive Questionnaire about Body and Health (cabah)
        maryam khadirzare فریده نرگسی farzad zandi alireza mokhberi
        Dysfunctional beliefs about illness and physical symptoms have been identified as risk factors for health anxiety. The Body and Health Cognitions Questionnaire (CABAH) is one of the most comprehensive tools for measuring health cognition. The aim of this study was to st Full Text
        Dysfunctional beliefs about illness and physical symptoms have been identified as risk factors for health anxiety. The Body and Health Cognitions Questionnaire (CABAH) is one of the most comprehensive tools for measuring health cognition. The aim of this study was to standardize Questionnaire 30 of this questionnaire in Iran. The number of samples in this study included 869 male and female students with health anxiety in Sanandaj Azad University, Kurdistan University and Khorramabad University of Medical Sciences who were selected by convenience sampling. Were evaluated. The validity of the questionnaire was obtained by Cronbach's alpha method and the construct validity was obtained by confirmatory factor analysis using Lizrel software. The Cronbach's alpha value of the whole questionnaire is 0.80, which indicates the appropriate internal consistency of the questionnaire. Also, the correlation between two parallel forms in the halving test for the CABAH questionnaire was 0.61, which is also acceptable. Therefore, in general, it can be said that the CABAH questionnaire has good reliability and can be used as a valid tool. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - The relationship of Quran with Traditions
        علی  نصیری
        Objective(s): There are four ideologies regarding the validity and Manbaee’at (being the primary source) of Quran and the traditions: 1) Quran-orienticism discusses that the only source for perceiving religion is the Holy Quran. 2) Tradition-orienticism argues that re Full Text
        Objective(s): There are four ideologies regarding the validity and Manbaee’at (being the primary source) of Quran and the traditions: 1) Quran-orienticism discusses that the only source for perceiving religion is the Holy Quran. 2) Tradition-orienticism argues that resorting to the Infallibles’(AS) Sunnah is the only source for learning about religion. 3) Quran-orienticism and Tradition-orienticism focuses on the issue that Tradition is the same as Quran in validity and Manbaee’at. 4) Double-orienticism says that Tradition is infereior to Quran with respect to validity and Manbaee’at. Method(s): the present research is based on a descriptive-exploratory method. Thus , for deduction of the Quranic data, the writer has analyzed the content of the Quran. Conclusion : The followers of Quraniyoon movement are in favor of the first ideology while the Akhbaris supports the second one. Allameh Tabatabaee and Shatebi are among the followers of the third ideology. The writer of this article has attemped to address the fourth one. Based on Double-orienticism ideology tradition wit respect to validity and Mabaee’t possses independence. Manuscript Document