• List of Articles Women

      • Open Access Article

        1 - The role of companies on environmental pollution and its effects on women's health (Case study of female employees of Assaluyeh Petrochemicals)
        ِDavood HoseiniRad Hadi Abdi Ahmad Hashemi Mahdi Arshadi
        The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role and social commitment of companies on environmental damage and its consequences and effects on the health and health of employees. Case study of female staff of Assaluyeh Petrochemicals. This study examines the Full Text
        The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role and social commitment of companies on environmental damage and its consequences and effects on the health and health of employees. Case study of female staff of Assaluyeh Petrochemicals. This study examines the role, commitment, and support of petrochemicals on the health, health, and staffing of women in relation to pollution and its detrimental effects on the environment. Assaluyeh Petrochemicals. In this research, it is an applied research and a descriptive survey. Our statistical population consists of petrochemical workers in the south of the country who have been involved in bladder cancer and most of these patients are those whose working conditions are such that they should be kept in open space outside office sites and buildings. They are involved in industrial pollution such as green space, repairs, and so on. The statistical population of this study consisted of 58 patients who were selected using the Cochran formula. Accounting plays an important role in corporate social responsibility, environmental crises, existing standards and standards, revenues and costs, and insurance franchises. According to the results of the hypotheses, there is a direct relationship between the role and commitment of petrochemical managers due to its pollutants and its detrimental effects on the environment and the health and health of its female employees. Thus, the incidence of bladder cancer among petrochemical workers is directly related to their work environment. The results show that there is a direct and meaningful relationship between the role and social commitment of companies and the health and health of female employees and their environment. Therefore, managers should play an important role in reducing the illness and health of their employees with the responsibilities they are responsible for, as well as supporting their franchisees with an appropriate insurance franchise for their medical expenses. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Survey of Social Responsibility of Women Compared to Men (Case Study: Shiraz Financial Staff)
        Seyedeh zeinab ghaemi bob anari MohammadReza Meygoonpoori
        The social responsibility of the organization, which has been an issue of concern and an eye catching issue in recent years, is an essential factor for the survival of any organization. Demographic characteristics influence social responsibility. The purpose of this stu Full Text
        The social responsibility of the organization, which has been an issue of concern and an eye catching issue in recent years, is an essential factor for the survival of any organization. Demographic characteristics influence social responsibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the social responsibility of women in comparison with men among the financial staff of Shiraz. The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey based on the purpose of applied research. The statistical population included the financial staff of Shiraz in 1398. The sample size of the study was 96 persons. A two-part questionnaire including Carroll's (1991) demographic and social responsibility questionnaire was used for data collection. In this study, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed and the reliability of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Data were analyzed by means of independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Findings showed that the social responsibility of the financial staff was assessed. In addition, the findings of the study showed that there is a significant difference between the level of social responsibility with the variables of gender and education so that the tendency of women to social responsibility is higher than that of men. In the face of problems, they make more responsible decisions and take responsibility There is a significant difference among financial staff with master's degree than financial staff with associate's and bachelor's degree, and the results show that education is different in the two groups of men and women so that the average group of women is larger than the average group. However, there is no significant difference between social responsibility and marital status, work experience, and age. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Psychometric Adequacy of Persian Version of Women Sexual Schema
        Jhale Refahi Nasir Dastan maryam behnam
        The sexual schema is a part of self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. This study aims to examine the validity of the Persian version of the women sexual schema questionnaire in Iranian society. The sample is consist Full Text
        The sexual schema is a part of self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. This study aims to examine the validity of the Persian version of the women sexual schema questionnaire in Iranian society. The sample is consisting of 360 married women chosen by multi-stage cluster sampling from Shiraz. The extracted factors from this scale in this study were not the same as those found in the original form of the female sexual schema scale. The scale of women's sexual schema in Iranian society consisted of four factors, namely: open-minded-direct, passionate-romantic, attractive, and embarrassed-conservative. Also, the results of the women's scale validity were reported through the correlation coefficients of the subscales with the desired total score. Moreover, examines show that the Persian versions of women sexual schema's scales have acceptable reliability. The clinical psychologists and family counselors can use and benefit from this scale to identify the women's sexual schema for searching and treatment activities in clinical and counseling settings. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Psychometric Adequacy of Persian Version of Women Sexual Schema
        ژاله  رفاهی
        Introduction: The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the validity of Persian version of women sexual schem Full Text
        Introduction: The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the validity of Persian version of women sexual schema questionnaire in an Iranian society. Method: The sample is consisting of 360 married women chosen by multi-stage cluster sampling. Results: The factors extracted from this scale in this study were not the same to those found in the original form of the female sexual schema scale. The scale of women's sexual schema in Iranian society consisted of four factors, namely open-direct, passionate-romantic, attractive, and embarrassed-conservative. Also, the report about examining the validity of factor structure of the women scale by mean of correlation coefficients of subscales with total score was optimal. Moreover, examines show that the Persian versions of women sexual schema's scales have acceptable reliability. Conclusion: The clinical psychologists and family counselors can use and benefit this scale to identify the women sexual schema for searching and treatment activities in clinical and counselling settings. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Sexual schemas and psychological well-being in married women: Investigating the mediating role of sexual function
        Reza Chalme Fateme Abdollahi
        The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of sexual function in the relationship between sexual schemas and psychological well-being in married women. The descriptive research method was a constraint type which was performed using structural equation m Full Text
        The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of sexual function in the relationship between sexual schemas and psychological well-being in married women. The descriptive research method was a constraint type which was performed using structural equation modelling method. The statistical population included married women from Shiraz. Using the available sampling method, 150 people were selected. Assessment tools included women's sexual performance index questionnaires (Rosen et al., 2000), sexual schema (Anderson and Sirvanowski, 1994), and psychological well-being (Reef, 1995). The data collected were analyzed in two descriptive levels (using mean, standard deviation) and inferential (using correlation coefficient and structural equation modelling with amos-21 software). The results showed that passionate-romantic and explicit-comfortable schemas had a positive and significant relationship and shy-cautious schemas had a negative and significant relationship with psychological well-being in married women. Sexual function was also a positive and significant predictor of psychological well-being. In addition, the results indicated that sexual function was able to mediate between passionate and romantic schemas and psychological well-being. Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that sexual schemas both directly and through sexual function can affect the psychological well-being of married women. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Women and Endowment/vaqf (case study: Tehran city in the Qajar and Pahlavi Eras )
        parvaneh shahhoseyni  
        People's voluntary contributions and activities to manage various affairs, especially in supportive affairs and poverty alleviation, have always been a part of human activities. Endowment or vaqf is one of the ways of social contribution that social groups, including wo Full Text
        People's voluntary contributions and activities to manage various affairs, especially in supportive affairs and poverty alleviation, have always been a part of human activities. Endowment or vaqf is one of the ways of social contribution that social groups, including women, are engaged in. The purpose of this research is to identify how women in Tehran participated in vaqf-related social activities during the Qajar and Pahlavi periods. The research method is documentary-descriptive. The statistical population includes all the endower women of Tehran city in the studied periods whose information is available. The vaqf-related data of these endower women were collected from valid sources, and were analyzed using statistical methods and AHP model. The findings show that the women of Tehran, having the right to own property and financial independence, have had the opportunity to participate in social affairs according to their tendency. Although in both studied periods, the religious motivation for vaqf had a higher position than other motivations, during the Qajar period, part of the development and Construction process of Tehran city has been accomplished through vaqf. The type of endowment sites is closely related to the social class of the endowers. Therefore, since most of the women in the city of Tehran during the Qajar period were mainly from the aristocracy and the lords, their most endowed sites is commercial, with a tendency towards dokan (old small store or shop), which in the Pahlavi era, was replaced with residential sites, especially home. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Performance of Agricultural Development Cooperatives in Women's Employment and Production of Agricultural Products in the Villages of Savojbolagh (Alborz Province)
          nasrollah molaeihashjin Mohammadbaset  Ghoreshi Akbar  Motamedi Mehr
        Agricultural production cooperatives are a suitable solution to achieve the economic and social development and realizing for realizing social justice. Based on this, the main aim of this study was describing the performance of agricultural production cooperatives in ru Full Text
        Agricultural production cooperatives are a suitable solution to achieve the economic and social development and realizing for realizing social justice. Based on this, the main aim of this study was describing the performance of agricultural production cooperatives in rural women employment, that was a case study in 28 villages that have cooperative company in Savojbolagh town in Alborz province. For this study descriptive-analytical method was applied. Statistical population include "villager members and managers of cooperative" with 708 persons and the samples volume for survey with questionnaire tool by Cochran method, was estimates 250 samples. The obtained results from descriptive and inferential statistics have showed the 6 types related to establishment of agricultural cooperative companies in these villages between 1981 to 2016 years, that the weighed average of the most of types were less than average and this show that the role of agricultural cooperative companies has not important and sensible in development of women employment. However the results of Chi 2 test has confirmed the hypothesis of the survey, but we should not forget that the effects of cooperative companies in employment and increasing income and reducing immigration of rural women, were low and investment and planning should be performed for improving the performance of cooperative companies and upgrading the situation of the women. Manuscript Document
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        8 - Recognition of the religious approach in the field of women's employment in Iran: challenges, opportunities and Policy options
        Nader MotiHaghshenas
        Women's employment has always been discussed in various dimensions. The creation of paradox in the field of women's employment has raised questions among thinkers in the economic, social, moral, and religious spheres. The argument of this article is to see what is Islam Full Text
        Women's employment has always been discussed in various dimensions. The creation of paradox in the field of women's employment has raised questions among thinkers in the economic, social, moral, and religious spheres. The argument of this article is to see what is Islam's approach to women's employment? What are the obstacles and challenges facing the issue of women's employment in an Islamic society? This research has tried to analyze the economic and living conditions of women by documenting the systematic and exploratory study by reviewing the systematic studies conducted in this field and the theoretical considerations taken from the Islamic point of view, emphasizing its adaptation to the original religious teachings in Islamic Iran. Pay attention to the main purpose. The findings show that although Islam has given women the principle of economic independence, women are both the owners of their labor and production and have no responsibility for the family's economy, but in the context of handing over labor to women in Islam, the interests of society, the family It also takes into account individual circumstances and issues, which create limitations for women's work. Certificates of cognitive population show that women's economic participation has increased from 12.93 percent in the 1976 census to 16 percent in the 2016 census, indicating a change in the participation of women in the Islamic economy, a change in their personal and social identities. An increase in the number of female graduates, women’s employment in different economic sectors and increase in women's activity in management sectors compared to previous decades indicate a significant growth. However, the lack of equal opportunities in favor to men to find jobs, lower wages than men and the unemployment rate of women, especially in higher education, the existence of some social and cultural restrictions on women's employment, attitudes and misconceptions. Compared to the competence of women in various jobs, the expansion of gender inequality in access to resources and the consequent increase in harm due to the lack of readiness and recognition of society are the main concern and challenge of women's employment in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Analyzing the Contrast of Women Approaches in Story Literature; Focusing on Holy Defense Stories
        حمید رضایی jahangir safari ابراهيم  ظاهري روح‌الله  كريمي
        Women, as composing half of society population, have significant roles in contemporary period’s social and cultural changes and their effective presence in society is manifested in many stories. Using Descriptive-phenomenological approach, this article attempts to analy Full Text
        Women, as composing half of society population, have significant roles in contemporary period’s social and cultural changes and their effective presence in society is manifested in many stories. Using Descriptive-phenomenological approach, this article attempts to analyze four groups of women, i.e. traditional women, Iranian culture-advocate women, westernized women, and wandering women in five contemporary novels. Traditional women are usually those homemakers or housekeepers paying attention just to domestic matters. Iranian culture-advocate women are those involved in social and political activities outside home and consider supporting and defensing Iranian culture ideals and doctrines as their own duties. Another group, i.e. westernized women, make claims about internal matters of country, support western culture, seek basic and fundamental reformations and protest against the current situation. Wandering women are not interested in western culture and do not follow and support Iranian domestic culture, but they are wandering in-between these two cultures. Manuscript Document
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        10 - A Survry to the Features of Feminine Traditional and Modern Identity in Parvin Etesami’s Poetry
        مریم  صادقی گیوی بهاره  پرهیزکاری
        Parvin is a poet expressing the isolation and the constraints imposed on women by her contemporaries. She delved into the prevalent beliefs and ill-treatment of the women of her time, which mainly originated from the women themselves, and attempted to evaluate them care Full Text
        Parvin is a poet expressing the isolation and the constraints imposed on women by her contemporaries. She delved into the prevalent beliefs and ill-treatment of the women of her time, which mainly originated from the women themselves, and attempted to evaluate them carefully and realistically so that she could find solutions. She was a pioneer poet in this regard. This article analyzes Parvin’s view on women which at the same time is traditional and modern. On the one hand, she admires women as mothers and wives, which entails the features like endurance, kindness, compassion, purity and chastity. On the other hand, she stresses the effective fulfilling of these functions through education and originality of their thoughts. Their relations to their spouses would be based on mutual understanding rather than obedience; they could raise their children in such a way that they would serve the society efficiently. Manuscript Document
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        11 - A Survey to the Narrative Time in the Play of "Moonlight Women, Sunny Man"
        مهدی  نیک‌منش سونا  سلیمیان
        In the few decades that narratology has been introduced as a science, narratologists have tried to explore its universal structure by finding specific narrative patterns for different aspects of story writing, including narrative time. The French theorist, Gerard Genett Full Text
        In the few decades that narratology has been introduced as a science, narratologists have tried to explore its universal structure by finding specific narrative patterns for different aspects of story writing, including narrative time. The French theorist, Gerard Genette, has posed an autonomous theory on "the parameter of time and its function and place in narration". According to him, timing arrangement in a narration is got through order, duration, and frequency. Studying and contrasting them against real time, one can determine the place of time in the process of story. Studying narrative time of in the play of "Moonlight Women, Sunny Man" by Chista Yaserbi shows that Yasrebi, avoiding the usual time sequence, and moving from chronological time to the text time, has made different selections and provided flashback and futurist narratives. Such selections and their especial timing plays a significant role in arranging the components of the plot, as well as suspense. Moerover, studying duration and frequency of the events narrated in this play, shows that the events enjoy an appropriate beat and speed according to the author's purpose. Regarding principles of narratology, there is a direct and significant correlation between content of the play and the speed of narrating the events, their repetition and frequency. Manuscript Document
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        12 - The Study of the Evolution of Maternal Contents in the Poetry of Some Poetesses from the Period of Constitutionalism up to Present
        مریم  عاملی رضایی
        Women’s Poetry has always been the field of expressing their emotions. Maternity is the purist of the feminine emotions reflected in the poems of both men and women. Extending feminine poetry in contemporary period, maternal images have also been depicted in it by the p Full Text
        Women’s Poetry has always been the field of expressing their emotions. Maternity is the purist of the feminine emotions reflected in the poems of both men and women. Extending feminine poetry in contemporary period, maternal images have also been depicted in it by the poetesses themselves. The objective of the present article is to study maternal contents in the poems of Iranian famous poetesses from the period of Constitutionalism to the present, say, Jale Qaem Maqami, Parvin E’tesami, Foruq Farokhzad, Simin Behbahani. It focuses on the fact that emerging modern thinking and individualism introduced the content of separation between mother and child to the feminine poetry. It also studies the ascent and descent of expressing maternal contents in their poetry. Although the nature of maternal emotion is the same, it worth mentioning that it can be affected by factors like the life, beliefs and world view of a poetess herself, the social changes of her time that make some contents more prevailing than the other ones. Findings of the present research shows that the main contents of this type are expressing mother and child emotions, mother and child talk, training child by mother, mothers view on the world and universe. Studying maternal contents in the poetry of every poetess, we will follow its changes regarding their time. Manuscript Document
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        13 - Recognizing the Women in “Safvat al- Safa”
        azar akbarzade ebrahimi  
        Safvat al-safa is one of the mystical books in the 8th century written by Ebn e Bazzaz about the characteristics of Sheikh Safi Ardabili. This book, written in late Mongol era, has been always considered as a historical document because it illustrates the features of My Full Text
        Safvat al-safa is one of the mystical books in the 8th century written by Ebn e Bazzaz about the characteristics of Sheikh Safi Ardabili. This book, written in late Mongol era, has been always considered as a historical document because it illustrates the features of Mysticism and Sufism in that era especially in the west of Iran. Discovering the identity of the characters in the book while some of which have not been studied so far, gives us more information about Mysticism before the advent of Safavid. By studying the book Safvat- al-safa, we figure out the effective role of women in this era. Some of them were mystics or disciples of sheikh Safi and some of them were prominent characters in that era due to their influence on the government and society, besides their mystic trends. In this research, after the introduction, by presenting examples from stories in Safvat al-safa, 15 women are introduced in two fields of mysticism and politics , and their roles in these fields are studied. Manuscript Document
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        14 - Studying the Trends in Fictions Written By Iranian Immigrants
          Reza  Shajari
        In recent decades, Iranian immigration and in particular the migration of the writers and the publication of their works have created a special phenomenon. Literary texts created by those writers and poets who are living abroad have established certain tendencies, trend Full Text
        In recent decades, Iranian immigration and in particular the migration of the writers and the publication of their works have created a special phenomenon. Literary texts created by those writers and poets who are living abroad have established certain tendencies, trends and particular literary approaches outside the borders of the country. The collective body of literary works created abroad, have been named differently by different critic based on the characteristics and features that they have outlined. The authors’ issues, how they have left the country, how long they have been living abroad, and the content of their works are of great importance in defining and classifying these literary works. Furthermore, different trends can be identified in stories written abroad. In the present article, stories written by Iranian immigrants are analyzed as politics-oriented, identity-oriented, and women's stories. In the '60s up-to-the mid-'70s the politics-oriented stories are the most frequent ones. This trend is emerged by political groups and activists, and focuses on the revolution and the issues surrounding it. From the mid-70s onwards, the identity-oriented trend became the major one. In this trend, themes such as the differences between the motherland and the other-land, and the ways the immigrants encounter the new world are highlighted through the narratives about identity. Also, there were many immigrant female writers who narrated the lives and issues of female immigrants from a feminine perspective. In these stories, the ways in which women face the new world and the issues they encountered in Iran are amongst the main themes. Manuscript Document
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        15 - A Critical Analysis of Women’s Role in Sindbad-Nameh
        Shiva Kamali Asl Habibollah Abbasi effat neghabi esmat khoeini
        Literature is a mirror that reflects the culture, and fictional texts are an appropriate ground upon which these cultural reflections in a variety of fields, including issues related to female status could be examined. In this research, two anecdotes were selected from Full Text
        Literature is a mirror that reflects the culture, and fictional texts are an appropriate ground upon which these cultural reflections in a variety of fields, including issues related to female status could be examined. In this research, two anecdotes were selected from Sindbad-Nameh to analyze the female role. Although the text of Sinbad-Nameh has been produced in a historical misogynistic context, there are many examples of the female power in it. This paper, with a descriptive-analytical approach, studies the text based on Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis method, at three levels of description, interpretation and explanation, to analyze the mechanisms of the representations of the female power. As a result, it was concluded that the women in this work have an active and powerful presence and that their active role in shaping the anecdote process is evident. Also, despite the negative attitude towards women, the signs of their hidden power can be observed. In this work, Women use intangible means of power such as language, tact, intelligence and politics to achieve their goals and if the ways to gain the constructive and lofty goals are closed to them, that power is sometimes misused. Manuscript Document
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        16 - Analysis of Women's Storytelling after the Islamic Revolution Based on the Cognitive Current
        sepideh seyyed faraji Farhad Tahmasbi Ruqayyah Sadraie
        After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, women's storytelling has developed. Both the number of female writers has increased and the themes of the stories have become more diverse. The political and social atmosphere after the revolution has also provided the ground Full Text
        After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, women's storytelling has developed. Both the number of female writers has increased and the themes of the stories have become more diverse. The political and social atmosphere after the revolution has also provided the ground for the expansion and diversity of women's storytelling. In most of what women have written, the focus of the story and characters is on the issue of women. Some women in their stories search for their feminine selves and reflect this identification from the perspective of female narratives; This section of women's works deals with female narratives that describe the female world (in terms of identity, emotion, gender, etc.). Some of the works of women reflect the political and social issues of the time. In these stories, the role of women in politics and society is generally shown, most of these stories refer to the role of women in the revolution and the war. Some female writers also write popular narratives of life and society for audiences that are generally female. A number of other women narrate the contrast between tradition and modernity, sometimes arguing for tradition and sometimes protesting against prevailing traditions and beliefs. This study has been done to identify and introduce the currents of women's storytelling in the post-revolutionary years. Therefore, based on a cognitive current model, this reserch categorizes and introduces several currents of women's storytelling. To separate and recognize the currents, three factors have been considered: first, the political and social context of the emergence of the current is introduced, then the focal points of the current are shown, and finally, the initiators and continuators of the current are discussed. Manuscript Document
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        17 - The Comparative Review of Reformist and Fundamentalist Currents toward Political Participation of Women in Islamic Republic of Iran (1997-2005)
        Mohammad Abedi Ardakani پروین عظیمی
        Since the victory of Islamic Republic of Iran up to now, there emerged two significant and effective intellectual and political currents. The first current which could be called from intellectual dimension as “Juristic Islamism Current” and from political dimension as “ Full Text
        Since the victory of Islamic Republic of Iran up to now, there emerged two significant and effective intellectual and political currents. The first current which could be called from intellectual dimension as “Juristic Islamism Current” and from political dimension as “Fundamentalism current”, got its climax political power in first and third decades of Islamic Revolution and it still keeps its power today. In contrast, the second current which could be called from intellectual dimension as “religious new thinkers” and from political aspect as the “Reformism current” reached its climax political power in the second decade of Revolution and from then on its is declining. The main purpose of this article is to comparatively review these two currents regarding the issue of women’s rights, particularly in relation to their political participation and its main hypothesis is as follows: “the different intellectual and religious principles of these two currents caused an inconsistency in their position toward the issue of women’s rights, particularly in relation to their political participations. To evaluate this hypothesis, using the descriptive-analytical method, it is tried to review intellectual and religious alphabets of these two currents and compare particularly these two in relation to political participation and family. The findings of this research shows that their attitudes toward the issue of women’s rights have significant differences in one hand, and in other hand, these differences are basically due to their different but inflexible interpretations of religion. Manuscript Document
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        18 - Constitutional Thinkers' Perception of the Concept of Equality
        mohamad ali tavana mohamad kamkari Mohammad Javad  Mostafavi Montazeri
        Simultaneously with the constitutional movement and the change of the political system from (absolute monarchy to constitutionalism), the debate over the idea of equality became popular among the thinkers of this era. But the question is that what was the thinkers’ atti Full Text
        Simultaneously with the constitutional movement and the change of the political system from (absolute monarchy to constitutionalism), the debate over the idea of equality became popular among the thinkers of this era. But the question is that what was the thinkers’ attitude of this age (constitutionalists and sharia seekers (Mashroehkhahan)) about equality? Based on the four categories of ontological meaning, dimensions, realm and scope of inclusion, the present article examines the perception of constitutional thinkers of equality. The method of the present article is text-based reading. The findings of the study are as follows: Constitutionalist religious thinkers such as Naini and Mahallati emphasized the legal (rather than natural) equality of the nation, including the equality of religious minorities and women in civil and social dimensions (rather than religious). And they recognized specifically political equality only for the wise men of the nation. Constitutionalist secular thinkers such as Akhundzadeh and Talibov, and moderate constitutionalist thinkers such as Mostashar al-Dawla and Malkum Khan at the same time emphasized the natural and legal equality of the nation in the civil, social and political dimensions in the public sphere. In contrast, sharia seekers (Mashroehkhahan) such as Sheikh Fazlullah Nouri, Ali Akbar Tabrizi, and Najafi Marandi believed in natural inequality (especially from a religious perspective) and saw the civil, socio-political equality of religious minorities and women as opposed to the inherent superiority of Islam. Manuscript Document
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        19 - Analysis of Metaphors of Women's Exclusion from Politics In Medieval Mirror for Princes
        fatemeh zolfagharian h a
        The sphere of politics has long been defined based on a masculine approach and women have been neglected and have not been given a clear and prominent position in the politics. Even in the Western philosophy, which is known as a manifestation of rationalism, women are r Full Text
        The sphere of politics has long been defined based on a masculine approach and women have been neglected and have not been given a clear and prominent position in the politics. Even in the Western philosophy, which is known as a manifestation of rationalism, women are recognized as the second sex, on the assumption that intelligence is a masculine character. Due to the fact that the status and position of women in the mirror of princes in different periods, is one of the ways that can clarify this status in different historical ages, in this article their rejection or acceptance by epistemological systems has been analyzed. What appears in the mirror of princes as prominent political texts in the Medieval is a depiction of a creature called woman who was nowhere present and, therefore, men have drawn their appearance as they liked. But the question is: what metaphors were in medieval the mirror of princes and historical texts that have reinforced the exclusion and marginalization of women? For this purpose, here the prepositions of the political texts and governance literature have been examined with the theoretical framework of metaphorical analysis and classification of metaphors into three titles: metaphor of creation, metaphor of governance and philosophical metaphor of masculine intellect. This article is based on a hypothesis in which women were excluded and confined to a private life for many years, and such metaphors have played a special and effective role in removing women from the political arena. Manuscript Document
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        20 - A Comparative Study of Bouransasani’s Monarchy in The Ferdowsi’s Shahname and Historical Sources (in a Critical Review of a Challenging Verse)
        Akram Joudi Nemati
        Bouran became as the ruler of Sassanid Empire just before downfall of the empire and she was praised in Shahnameh; however, at the beginning of Bouran’s reign, Ferdowsi quotes: “there was a girl named Bouran/ things do not go well, when a woman becomes king”. This verse Full Text
        Bouran became as the ruler of Sassanid Empire just before downfall of the empire and she was praised in Shahnameh; however, at the beginning of Bouran’s reign, Ferdowsi quotes: “there was a girl named Bouran/ things do not go well, when a woman becomes king”. This verse has an obvious contradiction with next verses and and according to this verse, it seems that the decay of empire at that time was a result of her reign. In order to answer to the question of "which of the two contradictions is true" and "what could be the cause of the mentioned contradiction", the article author has compared the Shahnameh's claim about Bouran's statecraft with historical sources. Research data show that there’s no report of inefficiency in Bouran’s governance, and all historians, in more detail than Ferdowsi, have reported her governing as good. So, why did Ferdowsi compose such a poem? The author, by proposing related hypotheses, concludes that this verse is not related to how Bouran governs, but it has been due to Ferdowsi's commitment to the presuppositions that were formed in related to the religious beliefs in his time. Tracing the presuppositions leads us to a hadith of the Prophet (PBUH): "A nation that leaves its affairs to a woman will never be successful.” The hadith documents do not confirm its validity, and its not even mentioned about in early Shiite sources; But its socio-cultural shadow has led to the presumption that if a woman becomes monarch, the country will be ruined. So, the poet has remained in contradiction between those historical facts and this social presupposition, and the result has been a contradiction in composing the story of Bouran. However, the Shahnameh as a whole, does not confirm the society negative view to the women. Manuscript Document
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        21 - Comparative Study of Islamic and Western Perspective of Women’s participation in economic activities
        Soheila Biria
        Women make up half of the world’s population. Therefore, their economic activities, as half of the community workforce, are very effective in achieving economic growth and development. Different societies have different views about the extent of women’s participation in Full Text
        Women make up half of the world’s population. Therefore, their economic activities, as half of the community workforce, are very effective in achieving economic growth and development. Different societies have different views about the extent of women’s participation in economic activities. In the west view, Women enter the labor market without any restriction and engage the economic activities. Their job role is primarily in priority and important than the role of their mother and wife. But in Islam views, while emphasizing woman’s participation in economic activities, their roles as mother and wife are emphasized. Islam accepts woman’s employment under certain conditions. In this research, an attempt has been made to examine these two perspectives and compare them with each other. Then, the consequences and results of these views on the current situation of women in these societies are examined. This article has been prepared by descriptive and analytical methods, using library information. Manuscript Document
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        22 - Predicting Women's Mental Health Shiraz City Based on Seven Evolutionary Lifestyles
        soode dashtiane kazem khorramdel
        This study aimed to investigate the relationship between seven components of women's lifestyle (sleep, omega-3 intake, exercise, sunlight, and socialization, using cyberspace and using traditional media) with their mental health according to an evolutionary point of vie Full Text
        This study aimed to investigate the relationship between seven components of women's lifestyle (sleep, omega-3 intake, exercise, sunlight, and socialization, using cyberspace and using traditional media) with their mental health according to an evolutionary point of view. The statistical population included women over 18 years old living in Shiraz in 1398-99, of which 182 women answered the questionnaires by sampling. Lifestyle questionnaires and Hopkins syndrome were used to collect data. Data analysis was performed using two tests of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression coefficient using SPSS-26 software. The results showed that in general, omega-3 consumption has a significant Curved linear dual relation with mental health. Among the subscales of the Hopkins sign, sleep also showed a significant positive relationship with somatization and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It can be seen that women's lifestyle has a great impact on their mental health, their children, and maintaining the physical and mental health of the family. Promoting a lifestyle that is more in line with women's evolutionary past is a more plausible perspective that can improve their mental health. Manuscript Document
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        23 - Investigating the Position of Women's Rights in the Citizenship Bill with an Emphasis on Women's Political Rights
           
        Citizenship Charter Reflects Government Concern Over Public Awareness on Citizenship and Proposes Respect for Human Rights. In this regard, one of the most important pillars of the civil rights charter is the issue of women's rights. The purpose of the present study is Full Text
        Citizenship Charter Reflects Government Concern Over Public Awareness on Citizenship and Proposes Respect for Human Rights. In this regard, one of the most important pillars of the civil rights charter is the issue of women's rights. The purpose of the present study is to investigate and analyze the level of attention to women's citizenship rights in the context of the Citizenship Charter. The above study shows that women's citizenship rights are accepted in the Charter of Citizenship to an acceptable extent, but there is no guarantee of proper implementation on the one hand and some practical challenges and on the other hand desirable and realistic research of women's rights in Iran with serious obstacles. Is facing Manuscript Document
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        24 - Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship in Business
        Ayatollah Momayezz Seyed Atefe Ghasemi Seyed fatemeh Ghasemi
        Entrepreneurship is one of the fundamental measures of development in each country, thus, it is considered as the engine of economic development in countries. Experiences of countries enjoying high growth of gross domestic income (GDI) indicate that leaders and managers Full Text
        Entrepreneurship is one of the fundamental measures of development in each country, thus, it is considered as the engine of economic development in countries. Experiences of countries enjoying high growth of gross domestic income (GDI) indicate that leaders and managers in these countries have realized the importance of entrepreneurship in countries development. Since women represent a large part of the population, entrepreneurship of this segment of society has a particular importance. Therefore, the measurement of women's participation in production is one of the important indicators to evaluate the progress of development in each country. Statistics shows that less than 10 percent of Iranian entrepreneurs are women. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that play a role in the development of women entrepreneurship. The research was based on questionnaire and interview and to ensure the reliability, the questionnaire was tested using Cronbach's alpha being valued for validity by views of scholars and professors. Statistical tests were utilized for data analysis and presentation. The results show despite holding dual roles of working women, they have positive feelings towards their activities. At the end recommendations and suggestion for the development of women's entrepreneurial activities are discussed in order to manifest the most important cultural change in society's attitude towards women's empowerment in economic activities. Manuscript Document
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        25 - The Effect of University Education on the Development of woman Entrepreneurship Skills
        Monireh Dizaji Maryam  zeini
        The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of university education on the development of women entrepreneurship skills. This study is an applied research and the method of data analysis is a descriptive – survey study. The statistical population of the resea Full Text
        The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of university education on the development of women entrepreneurship skills. This study is an applied research and the method of data analysis is a descriptive – survey study. The statistical population of the research is female graduate students at the Islamic Azad University of Tabriz. Data gathering method in this research, In addition to library studies, a researcher-made questionnaire was developed in the 5-option Likert scale that validity and reliability were confirmed. The results of the questionnaire were obtained using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.887 and por Data analyses SPSS and Lizrel software were applied. The results of the research indicate that university education has a significant effect on the development of entrepreneurship skills (personal skills, management skills and technical skills). Also, based on the results of factor load and confirmatory factor analysis, among the variables related to personal entrepreneurship skills, the highest load factor was related to inspirational skills, resilience and perseverance and the lowest factor related to innovation skill. On the other hand, among the variables related to entrepreneurial management skills, the greatest factor is the creation and maintenance of human relationships and the least factor load factor related to negotiation skills and among variables related to entrepreneurial technical skills, the most important factor is the supervisory skill and the assessment of the environment and the lowest factor was the coaching skill.. Manuscript Document
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        26 - Investigating the mediating role of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control in the relationship between mindfulness and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in women
        reza chalmeh fatemeh abdolahi
        The present study was conducted to investigate a causal model for identifying the prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder based on mindfulness, control and cognitive flexibility in women. The present study was a descriptive correlational study in which the assumed re Full Text
        The present study was conducted to investigate a causal model for identifying the prognosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder based on mindfulness, control and cognitive flexibility in women. The present study was a descriptive correlational study in which the assumed relationships between variables were investigated using the path analysis method. In this model, the mindfulness variable was considered as an exogenous variable, and cognitive control and flexibility were considered as mediating variables and symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder as an endogenous variable. The statistical population included all women aged 18 and over living in Shiraz, of which 150 were selected as a sample group by random sampling. The tools used in this study included Yale Brown obsessive-compulsive disorder questionnaires, Freiburg mindset (short form), and cognitive control and flexibility. The results showed that mindfulness predicts the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder inversely and significantly (β = -0.35). Cognitive flexibility (β = -0.24) and cognitive control (β = -0.23) were also negative and significant predictors of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Mindfulness was a positive and significant predictor of cognitive control (β = 0.80) and cognitive flexibility (β = 0.60). Finally, cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were able to mediate the role of exogenous and intrinsic variables. Play a child. Accordingly, mindfulness can reduce the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder by affecting the two variables of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control. Mindfulness predicts the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder inversely and significantly. In addition, cognitive flexibility is a negative and significant predictor of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder; In addition, both cognitive flexibility and cognitive control variables could play a mediating role between exogenous and endogenous variables. Accordingly, mindfulness can reduce the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder by affecting the two variables of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control. Manuscript Document
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        27 - Investigating the Role of Women in the Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Tendencies of Companies and Financial Performance in Companies Listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange.
        Seyed Davod Hosseini Rad Mostafa Ghasemi Abdol Reza Mohseni
        In developing countries, women play a significant role in promoting families, also the growth and development of their countries. The success of women entrepreneurs in societies brings economic advantages and creates social and cultural benefits. Countries consider entr Full Text
        In developing countries, women play a significant role in promoting families, also the growth and development of their countries. The success of women entrepreneurs in societies brings economic advantages and creates social and cultural benefits. Countries consider entrepreneurship due to three reasons; "wealth creation, technology development, and productive employment." However, in Iran, this concept is simply synonymous with "employment" by mistake, and we are moving towards entrepreneurship only to solve the employment problem. The present study investigates the role of women in the relationship between entrepreneurial tendencies of companies and financial performance in companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange. For this purpose, data related to 140 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange between the years 2013 to 2020 were collected and examined by the method of the structural equation (PLS). Findings from the study show that women have a moderating role between the criteria of entrepreneurial orientation and performance indicators of the company. It means that the role of women will improve the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and corporate financial performance. Manuscript Document
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        28 - Psychometric Adequacy of Women's Sexual Well-being Scale in Married Women: Validity, Reliability and Factor Structure
        reza chalmeh fatemeh abdolahi
        The aim of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Female Sexual Well-Being Scale in Iranian married women. For this purpose, a sample of 297 married women (with a mean age of 33.7 years and an age range of 24 to 45 years) was Full Text
        The aim of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Female Sexual Well-Being Scale in Iranian married women. For this purpose, a sample of 297 married women (with a mean age of 33.7 years and an age range of 24 to 45 years) was selected by simple random sampling. The Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire (Reef, 1995) and Women's Sexual Well-Being Scale (Rosen et al., 2009) were completed by the sample group. The validity of this scale was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods, convergent and simultaneous validity. The reliability of the scale was evaluated by two methods of Cronbach's alpha and halving. The results of factor analysis using principal component method and varimax rotation showed that this scale consists of 4 factors with the titles of interpersonal relationships, cognitive-emotional domain, physical stimulation and orgasm satisfaction, which is more than 66% of the variance. They explain the whole. The convergent validity of this scale indicated a satisfactory correlation between the dimensions of the female sexual well-being scale and the total score. To determine the simultaneous validity of the scale, the correlation between the dimensions of the female sexual well-being scale and the psychological well-being scale was used, which indicated a favorable correlation (p <0.001). Cronbach's alpha and halving coefficients for the whole scale and its dimensions ranged from 0.63 to 0.82. The final result is that the Persian form of the Women's Sexual Welfare Scale has good validity and reliability in Iranian society and can be used in research, educational and clinical situations. Manuscript Document
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        29 - Changing attitudes toward menstrual taboos from Primitive Societies to the Age of Media (A Systematic Review)
        Zahra Zare soode dashtiane shiva zare
        Aim: Menstruation is a biological process and it is regarded as a milestone in women’s life. But these cultural and social processes are so intertwined that made a wide range of rules and restrictions(as taboo) about menstruation and women’s function. Taboos restricts w Full Text
        Aim: Menstruation is a biological process and it is regarded as a milestone in women’s life. But these cultural and social processes are so intertwined that made a wide range of rules and restrictions(as taboo) about menstruation and women’s function. Taboos restricts women’s behaviors and have a negative effect on their physical and mental health. In this case the aim of this study is to considering the role of media in persistence and lessening menstrual taboos. Methodology: It was a systematic review study. Related keywords have been searched in PubMed, Springer, ScienceDirect, SID, Noormags and Civilica data and related articles which have been published between 1950 to 2021 were extracted. Findings: The frequent ideaology about menstruation in societies is silence and denial, a view that most media reproduce and strengthening it in different ways. But giving various information about menstruation without bias in different ways may lead to normalization and lessening menstruation taboos. Results: the normalization process of menstruation needs time but with interfering in media’s framework as a change, we may lead the society to the normalizing it. Media as a great and available source of information, can be used as a powerful tool in educating and breaking menstruation taboo. Manuscript Document
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        30 - Prediction of sexual satisfaction based on body image and perfectionism amongst pregnant women
        morteza Andalib Kourayem maryam morsali saeed mahmoodinia
        Introduction: The purpose of this study was to predict sexual satisfaction based on the components of body image and perfectionism in pregnant women. Methods: The research method was descriptive correlational. The study population was pregnant women residing in Tehran Full Text
        Introduction: The purpose of this study was to predict sexual satisfaction based on the components of body image and perfectionism in pregnant women. Methods: The research method was descriptive correlational. The study population was pregnant women residing in Tehran in May and June. The sample size was 160 according to Tabachnik and Fidel formula and were selected by available sampling. The instruments of this study were sexual satisfaction questionnaires of Hudson et al, (1981), body image of Fisher (1970, perfectionism of Hewitt and Felt (1991). Results: Results of simple and multiple regression analysis showed that sexual satisfaction of pregnant women was predictable based on body image. So that the relationship between body image and sexual satisfaction is positive and among the components of body image, only the lower limb dimension has a positive and significant relationship with sexual satisfaction.Conclusion: Sexual satisfaction of women is predictable based on perfectionism and there is a positive and significant correlation between social orientation and orbital self-perfectionism with sexual satisfaction of pregnant women. Women's sexual satisfaction is predictable based on perfectionism and body image. The role of perfectionism is more important than body image. Manuscript Document
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        31 - A survey of the roots and cultural aspects of virginity
        Marziye Zadsham Marziye Borzoeyan
        Virginity can be studied in various ways. Although virginity is a biological feature, it has been represented in different manifestations throughout history. Virginity is part of a woman's genitals. However, the conceptual meaning of virginity is not limited to women's Full Text
        Virginity can be studied in various ways. Although virginity is a biological feature, it has been represented in different manifestations throughout history. Virginity is part of a woman's genitals. However, the conceptual meaning of virginity is not limited to women's physiology. It also has penetrated the cultural and gender relations of societies, and in many cases, has determined the customary, moral, and legal criteria and standards. This study seeks to answer the question: What are the sources and roots of virginity and its meaning in human societies? To this end, virginity was reviewed in a sample of myths, religions, some primitive and modern communities. The results suggest that the concepts of virginity in different societies are related to the mythological, historical, economic, and cultural contexts and characteristics. These components generally confirmed virginity as a virtue throughout the history of most societies. Manuscript Document
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        32 - Using Shunpikes: Women's Strategy for Overcoming Social Constraints in Tourism
        hamed bakhshi fatemeh atri
        The current paper examines the differences between men's and women's tourism experiences as an aspect of leisure. Four factors, including normative restrictions, female roles, economic weakness, and lack of security feeling, lead women to regulate their tourism travels Full Text
        The current paper examines the differences between men's and women's tourism experiences as an aspect of leisure. Four factors, including normative restrictions, female roles, economic weakness, and lack of security feeling, lead women to regulate their tourism travels different from men. For this purpose, the data of the National Survey of Values, Attitudes and Behavior of Tourism in Iran, with a sample size of 5009 people from all provinces of the country, were secondary analyzed. Eight hypotheses related to tourism motivations and behaviors, including having tourism experience, and choosing accommodation, vehicle and tour, were compared between men and women. The results showed that women who traveled alone or with their friends/colleagues, comparing with men, traveled more with tours, less by personal cars, less for recreation purpose, and more for pilgrimage motivation. Women were more likely to travel for visiting relatives when they were alone, and were less likely to camp in trips when traveled with their friends or colleagues. Although the frequency of women who traveled alone or with friends/colleagues were less than men, since their trips with families and relatives were more than men, the total amount of domestic travel by women were not significantly less than men. While the number of foreign trips of women were less than men, the frequency of foreign trips of employed women were not significantly different with men. It seems that despite the serious shortcomings in the quality of women's tourism experience compared to men, by using structural and normative shunpikes, they tried to compensate it. Manuscript Document
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        33 - The effect of aerobic training and complementary of vitamin D + omega-3 on metabolic syndrome indices in obese women
        Leyla   Ahmadpour Masoumeh Hosseini Kimia   Moeeni Afshari
        Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training a Full Text
        Background: Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training and complementary of vitamin D + omega-3 on metabolic syndrome indices in obese women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 40 women (26/4±7/6 yrs. 32/26±1/78kg/m2 ) Volunteered and they were randomly divided into four groups of 10 persons (aerobic training, vitamin D + omega-3 supplements, aerobic training + vitamin D + omega-3 supplements and control groups) . Aerobic training consisted of 12 week, 3 sessions of 1 hour each session at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (1.6 km of treadmill walking). In supplement groups, supplementation was performed daily with 1000 IU vitamin D and 1000 mg fish oil. Blood samples were taken before and after the research protocol. Data were analyzed using covariance analysis test. Results: 12 weeks of aerobic training plus supplementation significantly reduced lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, insulin concentration, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure and the maximum oxygen consumption was significantly increased (p≤0/05). Conclusion: Aerobic training is a safe and effective way to improve metabolic health. Also, combining vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids to modify metabolic syndrome-related indicators can increase the beneficial effects of training. Manuscript Document
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        34 - Effectiveness of Forgiveness-Based Group Therapy on Depression and Psychological Distress Symptoms of Elderly Women
        parvaneh Mohammadkhani
        Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forgiveness-based group therapy on depression and psychological distress symptoms of elderly women who had been referred to Omid Gerontology Center in Theran. To evaluate the effectiveness of Full Text
        Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forgiveness-based group therapy on depression and psychological distress symptoms of elderly women who had been referred to Omid Gerontology Center in Theran. To evaluate the effectiveness of for-giveness-based intervenetion, quasi-experi-mental design with pre-test, post-test, and three-month follow up was used. The statistical population consisted of all elderly women who had been referred to Omid Gerontology Center in Tehran The sample consisted of 30 women meeting the research criteria who were ran-domly divided into control (N=15) and experi-mental group (N=15). Participants in both groups were assessed by Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Brief Symptoms In-ventory (BSI). After pretest, the experimental group met for a total of 8 forgiveness-based intervention sessions (2 hours each). Data showed a reduction in depression severity in experimental group (P<0.05). It also showed remission on Brief Symptoms Inventory subscales and its 3 total indexes, namely Glo-bal Severity Index, Positive Symptom Total, and Positive Symptom Distress Index (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that Forgiveness-based group therapy is an effec-tive intervention in depressed elderly women and could be useful in promoting mental health in this stage of life. Manuscript Document
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        35 - Investigating the Relationship Between Self¬-¬Compassion and Body Management in Women
        Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Fahimeh Momen
        This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-compassion and body management in women. The present study was descriptive and correlational. The study's statistical population consisted of all women in Shiraz in 2021. Among them, 300 women were selected f Full Text
        This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-compassion and body management in women. The present study was descriptive and correlational. The study's statistical population consisted of all women in Shiraz in 2021. Among them, 300 women were selected from the statistical population by available sampling method as the sample size. Data were collected using Self-Compassion Questionnaire (Reiss, Puminer, Neff, and Wanguchta (2011) (SCS-SF)) and Online Object Awareness Questionnaire (McKinley and Hyde (2001)). Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and SPSS statistical software. Findings from Pearson correlation analysis, related to examining the significant relationship between self-compassion and changes in body management in women, showed a significant negative relationship between the components, including self-kindness, self-judgment, human sharing, isolation, mindfulness, extreme assimilation, and changes in body management. The present study results emphasize the role and importance of self-compassion in dealing with behaviors related to body management. Cultivating a compassionate mind can control the negative behavioral consequences associated with maladaptive body management, which can have many practical implications for women. Manuscript Document
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        36 - Islam views the economic performance of women and their role in the economic development of the Muslim community
        Soheila Biria
        By explaining the genuine status of women, Islam has considered many financial and economic rights for women; however, in Islamic financial law, women have no financial responsibility for providing the family means of livelihood for their household. Therefore, women hav Full Text
        By explaining the genuine status of women, Islam has considered many financial and economic rights for women; however, in Islamic financial law, women have no financial responsibility for providing the family means of livelihood for their household. Therefore, women have financial independence, and all rights such as inheritance, dowry, alimony, income from work belong to women based on the Islamic legal system. No one has the right to attack, demand, and seize this right. In addition, women are involved in the foundation of economic development and the creation of human capital. This paper explores the Islamic view of women's economic status. Then, the role of women in the economic development of Islamic society is evaluated, and suggestions are made to enhance women's empowerment. This article is descriptive and analytical. Manuscript Document
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        37 - The function of women in a resistance economy
        sakineh ganjkhanloo Maryam Alizade
        The function of women in the resistance economy is one of the important and influential reasons in society, family, and particularly in the society's economy. Paying attention to the principles governing female personality, the origin, and source of the distinction betw Full Text
        The function of women in the resistance economy is one of the important and influential reasons in society, family, and particularly in the society's economy. Paying attention to the principles governing female personality, the origin, and source of the distinction between function in male and female resistance economics also cause biological, behavioral, economic, and legislative differences. In religious thought, although employment is considered a right for women, it is never imposed on them as an economic obligation. Creating attitudes of resistance economy can pave the way for a healthy and refreshing family and society, away from harm. In this article, documentary methods are used to deal with the consequence of economic actions in Islamic lifestyle researchers, achieving a resistant economy and transformation in the family. Which first defines women, family, society, and resistance economy, and then the undeniable effects of women, both positively and negatively, are considered. Finally, according to the findings, it attempts to realize the trend of changes in the future based on the emphasis on the resistance economy. Manuscript Document
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        38 - Factors affecting women empowerment with an emphasis on tourism (Case study: Sisakht city)
         
        The present study aims to identify and analyze the factors, affecting empowerment of women with an emphasis on tourism in Sishokht. This is an analytical descriptive study. The research population includes, 2000 women over the age of 15. The sample size of 322 women was Full Text
        The present study aims to identify and analyze the factors, affecting empowerment of women with an emphasis on tourism in Sishokht. This is an analytical descriptive study. The research population includes, 2000 women over the age of 15. The sample size of 322 women was selected through simple random sampling. A researcher made questionnaire was used as a main tool for gathering data which its content validity was confirmed by university professors. The calculated Cronbach's alpha, for Leading factors was 817% and for Restricting factors was 756%, which prooved the research instrument has the needed reliability. The results of data analysis, by using factorial analysis, suggested that leading factors by the sum of 0.56 determined dependent variance, with four factors, have a role in women's empowerment; economic factors by identifying 18.341 of total variance of dependent variables, is the first and most important factor. Limiting factors with the sum of 0.58, identified as a dependent variance which have role, with six factors, in restricting tourism development and women's empowerment, and economic factor by 14.221, which is identifying the total variance of dependent variables, was considered as the first factor in limiting factors. Manuscript Document