• List of Articles Metaphor

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Grammatical Metaphor: A New Criterion for Distinguishing the Language of Science and Literature
        حسین  رضویان ساجده  مبارکی
        One of the common concepts in systemic functional grammar of Michael Halliday is grammatical metaphor, generally introduced as a kind of metaphor. Halliday introduced and distinguished three grammatical metaphors: ideational, interpersonal and textual. This article revi More
        One of the common concepts in systemic functional grammar of Michael Halliday is grammatical metaphor, generally introduced as a kind of metaphor. Halliday introduced and distinguished three grammatical metaphors: ideational, interpersonal and textual. This article reviewed the degree and method of applying different kinds of grammatical metaphors in scientific and literary texts. To do so, authors selected and analyzed one scientific work titled “an Introduction to Sociology of Language” by Yahya Modarresi and one literary text named “Tangsir” by Sadeq Chubak as their samples. Their findings showed that the degree of using different kinds of grammatical metaphors is not equal in scientific and literary texts. It seems that authors of scientific texts used grammatical metaphors to enrich contents, information summarization, making texts more technical for target audiences, making contents clearer and other reasons. The author of literary text used grammatical metaphors as few as possible. Abovementioned reasons do not apply in literary texts and this justifies its less usage. Therefore, the article attempts to introduce grammatical metaphor as a new criterion for distinguishing scientific and literary texts by providing enough proofs from these two texts. Manuscript Document
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        2 - A Critical Review of Implicit Metaphor in Rhetorical Works
         
        One of the controversial issues related to metaphor is implicit metaphor. There is no evidence of this metaphor in the first rhetorical works. Later, Jurjani discussed this type of metaphor but didn’t give a name to it. Since this term was coined, there were argues whet More
        One of the controversial issues related to metaphor is implicit metaphor. There is no evidence of this metaphor in the first rhetorical works. Later, Jurjani discussed this type of metaphor but didn’t give a name to it. Since this term was coined, there were argues whether it is right or not. Some did not accept it as a metaphor; some recognized it as a kind of implicit simile, and some just repeated other’s views. Some researchers tried to solve the issue by considering it a kind of personification. However, they have finally admitted that the implicit metaphor is broader and more inclusive than personification. In addition to studying and reviewing this term chronologically in rhetorical works, in this paper, it is shown that rhetoricians were more interested in lexical aspects of this term rather than the definition of metaphor and focus on the implicit metaphor from a terminological aspect. While based on the definition of Sakkaki and some other rhetoricians, this structure is considered "metaphor", terms such as being “imaginative” can not be accepted. Personification, submerged metaphor, and animism must be recognized as branches of the implicit metaphor, not as alternatives for it. Manuscript Document
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        3 - Investigating the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in the Evolution of literary styles (Relying on Body Metaphors in Farrokhi Sistani, Anvari, and Hafiz's poems)
        Mohammad  Taheri Masoumeh  Archandani
        The conceptual metaphor is the mind’s technique for conceptualizing affairs. The mind tries to conceive and contemplate some intangible affairs for itself with the help of this fundamental construct. Hence, it is expected that by changing it, we will also see a change i More
        The conceptual metaphor is the mind’s technique for conceptualizing affairs. The mind tries to conceive and contemplate some intangible affairs for itself with the help of this fundamental construct. Hence, it is expected that by changing it, we will also see a change in thought-related macro-systems. Among these macrosystems are literary styles that have many factors involved in changing them. This article tries to answer the question of how the change of conceptual metaphors in time has an effect on the change of literary styles through analytical-descriptive method. To answer it, we trace the conceptual metaphors related to the body, which include the words "hand, eye, heart and head", in a selection of poems by Farrokhi Sistani, Anvari and Hafez. By analyzing the obtained information, we conclude that conceptual metaphors have undergone significant changes over time that are in line with the evolution of literary styles and are variables affecting the evolution of styles. Manuscript Document
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        4 - A Study on How "Odors"are Descibed in Persian Written Texts
        azam estaji
        The present paper studies how odors are described in selected data from Persian written texts. For this purpose, instances of the use of the word "odor" and its dependents were extracted from two written corpus (including news and fiction texts, with about nine million More
        The present paper studies how odors are described in selected data from Persian written texts. For this purpose, instances of the use of the word "odor" and its dependents were extracted from two written corpus (including news and fiction texts, with about nine million words) and were classified and described based on structural and semantic features. Examination of the data shows that odors in Persian are described more with Ezafet constructions than descriptive constructions (82% vs. 18%). Regarding the method of describing odors, it was also found that Persian speakers prefer to describe odors with reference to their origin rather than using adjectives. In addition, it was found that in Ezafet constructions where odor is described with an noun, odor finds metaphorical usage and is used figuratively to mean "effect and sign". Regarding the adjectives used to describe odors, it was found that on the one hand there are limited adjectives to describe odors and on the other hand these adjectives can be semantically divided into three categories: pleasant adjectives, unpleasant adjectives and adjectives that emphasize odor specificity. In addition, the comparison of the two data sets showed that in the data extracted from news texts, the ratio of metaphorical use of smell was higher and in the data extracted from fictional texts, the ratio of describing smell by referring to its origin was higher, this difference can be explained by the nature of the texts being analyzed. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Eponym (Nambakhsh): Eponym (Nambakhsh): A kind of rhetoric in Persian language
        hosein ghorbanpoor elmira taslimi
        The eponym is a noun and an adjective that has become a concept. In fact, the concept has become one with the object, and nowis used in as aconcept that has been accepted by the collective subconscious.Unlike Metaphor, eponym is not used in literary language; rather it More
        The eponym is a noun and an adjective that has become a concept. In fact, the concept has become one with the object, and nowis used in as aconcept that has been accepted by the collective subconscious.Unlike Metaphor, eponym is not used in literary language; rather it is mostly used in common language; and contrary to metaphor, which requires a symmetrical understanding, eponym is rooted in the unconscious group of a particular people or culture.In fact, eponyms are stereotyped metaphors which understanding them depends on cultural similarity. Such words have been widely used in language; but in Persian, so far no research has been done on this genre. This research seeks to introduce eponym as a genre and also to classify such nouns based on their semantic domain and type of its usage.The method of this research has been qualitative and its data has been done based on descriptive-analytical method and using library study tools. The result of this division is putting eponyms in eight different groups: religious and non-religious, animals and people, positive and negative, politics and place. On the other hand, they have been put in six categories: names of persons, animals, place, accessories related to religious and mythical elders, and in the meanings of virtual worlds and adjective. The most frequent eponyms in Persian are special nouns that have become adjectives such as Iblis and the Antichrist. Some eponyms are animals that have become adjectivessuch as carnivores and hyenas. Some place names have also become adjectives; like Sahrayeh Karbala & Resurrection. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Analysis of Metaphors of Women's Exclusion from Politics In Medieval Mirror for Princes
        fatemeh zolfagharian h a
        The sphere of politics has long been defined based on a masculine approach and women have been neglected and have not been given a clear and prominent position in the politics. Even in the Western philosophy, which is known as a manifestation of rationalism, women are r More
        The sphere of politics has long been defined based on a masculine approach and women have been neglected and have not been given a clear and prominent position in the politics. Even in the Western philosophy, which is known as a manifestation of rationalism, women are recognized as the second sex, on the assumption that intelligence is a masculine character. Due to the fact that the status and position of women in the mirror of princes in different periods, is one of the ways that can clarify this status in different historical ages, in this article their rejection or acceptance by epistemological systems has been analyzed. What appears in the mirror of princes as prominent political texts in the Medieval is a depiction of a creature called woman who was nowhere present and, therefore, men have drawn their appearance as they liked. But the question is: what metaphors were in medieval the mirror of princes and historical texts that have reinforced the exclusion and marginalization of women? For this purpose, here the prepositions of the political texts and governance literature have been examined with the theoretical framework of metaphorical analysis and classification of metaphors into three titles: metaphor of creation, metaphor of governance and philosophical metaphor of masculine intellect. This article is based on a hypothesis in which women were excluded and confined to a private life for many years, and such metaphors have played a special and effective role in removing women from the political arena. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Consonance of Transcendent Philosophy and Quran in the Theory of Coextensive of Being and Perception
        Ali Mohammad  Jafari Nejad
        The manifestation of Quranic teachings in philosophical approaches on the one hand, and the demonstration of Qur'anic teachings through philosophical analysis, on the other hand, signify a deep link between revealed knowledges and philosophical ideas in the epistemic sy More
        The manifestation of Quranic teachings in philosophical approaches on the one hand, and the demonstration of Qur'anic teachings through philosophical analysis, on the other hand, signify a deep link between revealed knowledges and philosophical ideas in the epistemic system of transcendent philosophy. Among the issues that reveal correspondence between Sadrian philosophical findings with the Qur'anic teachings is Mulla Sadra's view in the coextensive of being and perception. A look at Mulla Sadra's philosophical analysis on this issue and survey and critique of its compatibility with the Qur'anic teachings is the subject of this article. Manuscript Document
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        8 - Knowledge Intensive Firms DNA
        Hosein RahmanSeresht Mohsen Zabihi Jam Khaneh
        Today's, business environment arestrongly influenced by theknowledge basedeconomy and the emergence of knowledge-intensive firms is common. The firms that focus on knowledge, technological innovation and its commercialization, and their main purpose is wealth creation a More
        Today's, business environment arestrongly influenced by theknowledge basedeconomy and the emergence of knowledge-intensive firms is common. The firms that focus on knowledge, technological innovation and its commercialization, and their main purpose is wealth creation and entrepreneurship. No doubt these firms due to differences with other types of organizations, have their own problems and organizational gaps. Us of metaphors can help managers better understand the organization and reveals hidden aspects of it. Organizational DNA is a new metaphor which assumes that theorganization has a structure similar to a living organism. In this study knowledge-intensive firms in Tehran University Science and Technology Park (N=10, consisted of 102 employees) have been investigated. Research instrument was honold and silverman standard questionnaire and to analyze data, the analysis of variance and paired comparison test is used. The questionnaire consists of four dimensions: Leadership tasks and activities (includingmission, organizational structure and leadership style), management activities (including planning, team work and performance management), human resource performance (including employment, pay and training and staff development) organization daily activities (including decision-making, interpersonal relationships, processes of change and look to profit. The results indicated that the DNA of knowledge-intensivefirms in Tehran University Science and Technology Park is not similar to any of four types of DNA (Factual, Conceptual, Contextualized and Individual DNA) that Honold and silverman introduced, and Each of the dimensions is scattered in each of four types of DNA. Manuscript Document
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        9 - The conceptual metaphor and socio-political discourse of Samad Behrangi (A case study of the " Beetroot boy " story)
        DR abolfazl ghanizadeh
        Metaphor is the mapping between the corresponding realms (origin and destination) in the conceptual system. Metaphor using primary, secondary and final validation as well as persuasive power, by enhancing knowledge confidence in metaphorical cognitive system, using sou More
        Metaphor is the mapping between the corresponding realms (origin and destination) in the conceptual system. Metaphor using primary, secondary and final validation as well as persuasive power, by enhancing knowledge confidence in metaphorical cognitive system, using source domain and employing effective communication channel, as well as adhering to textural indices and applying rhetorical auxiliary strategies to development and enhancement. The semantic coefficient (conceptualization and discourse) of the text helps. The present study examines the persuasive role of Samad Behrangi as a metaphor in the creation of socio-political discourse in "The Little Boy's Story". After presenting a brief introduction to the research concepts and explaining the persuasive role of metaphor in producing socio-political discourse The story concludes that the source (intuitive) source of Samad Behrangi's metaphors in "The Little Boy's Tale" is the cruelty of the target and the scope of the social inequality and the overwhelming class distances stemming from the social-democratic political system. By producing these mappings in public opinion, the author contributes to the development of social justice by changing the ruling system of society. Manuscript Document
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        10 - Cognitive Megametaphor of "Freedom" in Kurdish language, According to Sherko Bekas Poetry
        Samad Aliaghayee Vahid Gholami sadegh mohammadi
        Cognitive Megametaphor of "Freedom" in Kurdish language, According to Sherko Bekas Poetry Abstract One of the most important and recent approaches in criticizing literary works is cognitive linguistics. Conceptual Metaphor Theory is one of the main theoretical framew More
        Cognitive Megametaphor of "Freedom" in Kurdish language, According to Sherko Bekas Poetry Abstract One of the most important and recent approaches in criticizing literary works is cognitive linguistics. Conceptual Metaphor Theory is one of the main theoretical frameworks in Cognitive Semantics. According to it, metaphor is not just a matter of word, but it is about thought and reason. In all of conceptual metaphors mapping is primary, and they use a source domain language as a pattern for showing the target domain concepts. Megametaphors are set of macrostructures in linguistics which built by other conceptual metaphors in superstructure of the text. This investigation aims to study cognitive megametaphor of "freedom" in the; Now a Girl is my Homeland, a book by Sherko Bekas. How Bekas used different kinds of conceptual metaphors in the undercurrent to form freedom megametaphor at the superstructure, is the main question in this study. The results show that freedom and its relevant concepts are the most common concepts in Bekas poetry. Key words: Cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphors, megametaphors of freedom,Kurdish language, Sherko Bekas Key words: Cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphors, megametaphors of freedom,Kurdish language, Sherko Bekas Key words: Cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphors, megametaphors of freedom,Kurdish language, Sherko Bekas Manuscript Document
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        11 - Function of the Intellect in the Realms of Religion and Ethics in Qadi Abduljabbar Mu‘tazili
        Farzaneh  Mustafapour Hossein  Hooshanghi Seyyed Abbas  Zahabi
        This paper examines the functions of theoretical and practical intellects in the fields of religion and ethics in the view of Qadi Abduljabbar Mu‘tazili. Based on what appears from his views regarding the explanation of ethical propositions, we can refer to three episte More
        This paper examines the functions of theoretical and practical intellects in the fields of religion and ethics in the view of Qadi Abduljabbar Mu‘tazili. Based on what appears from his views regarding the explanation of ethical propositions, we can refer to three epistemological, motivational, and ontological approaches. The writers have investigated three categories in the field of epistemology: knowledge of fundamental values, goodness and ugliness of acts, and unveiling of ethical principles based on basic propositions; two functions of the intellect in the field of motivation: the origin of human ethical implications and the basis of Man’s responsibility, and the human voluntary and rational choice in the field of ontology. He maintains that the intellect plays an essential and fundamental role in each of them, and that moral principles have been explained based on rational reasoning. Regarding the functions of the intellect in the domain of understanding religion, the writers initially deal with God’s Oneness and Justice in the light of rational reason and, then, relying on religious principles and through granting a central role to the intellect, they interpret some Qur’anic verses. Finally, they try to interpret some cases which are in contrast to the intellect with reference to certain examples. Manuscript Document
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        12 - An Analysis of the Efficiency of the Theory of Coining Words for the Spirits of Meaning
        Abdollah Mirahmadi Mona Amanipoor
        One of the useful views regarding the expansibility of meaning in the Qur’an is rooted in the theory of “coining words for spirits of meaning”. This view originates in a gnostic principle based on which the vertical levels of the meanings of words have a single spirit t More
        One of the useful views regarding the expansibility of meaning in the Qur’an is rooted in the theory of “coining words for spirits of meaning”. This view originates in a gnostic principle based on which the vertical levels of the meanings of words have a single spirit that applies to all referents in the real sense of the word. Through expanding sensible and material concepts to meta-gnostic meanings, the advocates of the principle of the spirit of meaning maintain that the features originated in the referents of words cannot affect the real meaning because the signified objects of words are general. Accordingly, the truth of words can be applied to all levels of meaning from the level of hidden truth to a lower level which is comprehensible to all. The followers of this theory consider “expanded concept” to be a level of word meaning without rejecting the common understanding of the lexical meanings of words. In this paper, the writers have examined the defects of the theory of the spirit of meaning through an accurate analysis of its nature and extracting its principles from the various interpretations provided by its advocates. The disagreement with predicating predicate adjectives on metaphoric expressions, concentration on objective affairs in word semantics, and lack of attention to new linguistic views are among the most important defects of this theory. Manuscript Document
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        13 - A Comparative Study of Educational Metaphor of Journey in Islamic and Humanism Mysticism
        رضا محمدی چابکی
        The present study aims to explain the educational metaphor of the journey and its educational implications by a comparative study of two valuable educational works of "The Conference of the Birds" and "The Magic Mountain". Therefore, to achieve the research objectives, More
        The present study aims to explain the educational metaphor of the journey and its educational implications by a comparative study of two valuable educational works of "The Conference of the Birds" and "The Magic Mountain". Therefore, to achieve the research objectives, the methods of progressive inference method, and also the four-step comparative method are used and the findings of this study, in three main steps, include the analysis of the educational metaphor of the journey in "The Conference of the Birds" and "The Magic Mountain" from the perspective of seven intermediate mapping maps, including travelers or travelers, travel planners, travel destinations, travel stages, luggage, Routing and travel requirements, travel strategy, and also trips), the deduction of educational implications (principles and methods of education) in the two books, as well as the comparison of the previous two steps. Accordingly, the results of the research indicate that the educational metaphor of the journey, based on the selective basis for it, in which two bases of Islamic mysticism and humanist mysticism are introduced, are two separate paths for education that are defined by The abundance of commonality between these two paths is thought to be different for them; among them, the commonality of these two can be exemplified by the step-by-step process, the freedom and the ability to interpret and interrogate in traveler (student), and The distinction between these two can also be the place or origin of the cognition of human beings and their different ends, one that is infinite and divine, and the other is limited to the human soul. Manuscript Document
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        14 - A Comparative Study of Educational Metaphor of Journey in Islamic and Humanism Mysticism
        رضا محمدی چابکی Fatemeh Vojdani Fatemeh Sadat Bitarafan
        The present study aims to explain the educational metaphor of the journey and its educational implications by a comparative study of two valuable educational works of "The Conference of the Birds" and "The Magic Mountain". Therefore, to achieve the research objectives, More
        The present study aims to explain the educational metaphor of the journey and its educational implications by a comparative study of two valuable educational works of "The Conference of the Birds" and "The Magic Mountain". Therefore, to achieve the research objectives, the methods of progressive inference method, and also the four-step comparative method are used and the findings of this study, in three main steps, include the analysis of the educational metaphor of the journey in "The Conference of the Birds" and "The Magic Mountain" from the perspective of seven intermediate mapping maps, including travelers or travelers, travel planners, travel destinations, travel stages, luggage, Routing and travel requirements, travel strategy, and also trips), the deduction of educational implications (principles and methods of education) in the two books, as well as the comparison of the previous two steps. Accordingly, the results of the research indicate that the educational metaphor of the journey, based on the selective basis for it, in which two bases of Islamic mysticism and humanist mysticism are introduced, are two separate paths for education that are defined by The abundance of commonality between these two paths is thought to be different for them; among them, the commonality of these two can be exemplified by the step-by-step process, the freedom and the ability to interpret and interrogate in traveler (student), and The distinction between these two can also be the place or origin of the cognition of human beings and their different ends, one that is infinite and divine, and the other is limited to the human soul. Manuscript Document
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        15 - with an Emphasis on the Discourse of Satan in the Quran
        mohammad hosein shir afkan ali reza ghaemi nia
        Mankind craves for perfection and in order for his growth, he needs to identify obstacles facing in his path. One of the main obstacles on his path which keeps him aloof from Allah is Satan. Hence, identifying and recognizing Satan as a great barrier which prevents him More
        Mankind craves for perfection and in order for his growth, he needs to identify obstacles facing in his path. One of the main obstacles on his path which keeps him aloof from Allah is Satan. Hence, identifying and recognizing Satan as a great barrier which prevents him from reaching a defined objective is necessary. In the Holy Quran there are many conversations, including those suggested by Satan. Mentioning Satan’s dialogues in the Quran demonstrates the importance of this matter in the sight of Allah. In this paper, verses containing the words of Satan are investigated and analyzed based on cognitive conceptualization in order to explain and recognize the reality of Satan’s words in the Quran and the way they make sense in this group of verses. It considers Satan’s words in five categories, of Satan’s superiority, asking for respite, dominance, seeking good and Satan’s promise, the mind can make a good concept of these matters and is ready to analyze them. In conclusion, it can be said that Satan’s mental space stands against the divine mental space and the followers of each have tendency toward the mental space in accordance with their capacity and thoughts. Manuscript Document
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        16 - The application of innovation ecotone theory to modify the structure of Iran's innovation ecosystem
        nasrin bigdelou hamid zare seied sepehr ghazinori
        The concept of ecosystem, after entering the field of management has created many concepts such as” innovation ecosystem” which is one of the most widely used. These concepts have not reached a consensus in definition and function, and before the metaphors become clear More
        The concept of ecosystem, after entering the field of management has created many concepts such as” innovation ecosystem” which is one of the most widely used. These concepts have not reached a consensus in definition and function, and before the metaphors become clear, have been considered specific functions, goals and tasks without considering its relationship with other similar concepts. In this paper, the innovation ecosystem metaphor is specifically discussed, which is of great interest in Iran, and its existing structure is also related to the business, knowledge and entrepreneurship ecosystems. Since in fact, the expectations of the policymakers have not been met, it is necessary to study its relationship with the rest of the ecosystems and change the approach in the definition and dimension of the structure and adopted policies. Accordingly, in this paper, after studying the relationships between the innovation, knowledge and business ecosystems, the ecotone metaphor, which is one of the main attachments of the ecosystem in its origin - biological sciences - has been neglected in non-biological sciences, is proposed for innovation. Innovation is the bridge between knowledge and business, and innovation ecotone is the border between the two ecosystems of business and knowledge. Based on this, principles have been proposed for policy makers to improve innovation in Iran Manuscript Document