• List of Articles condition

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Strategies for the development of knowledge-based employment in the country based on the data of the Foundation's method
        Samad Aali
        The purpose of this research is to explore strategies for developing knowledge-based employment in the country. The present research is applied to the research purpose, applied-development, and in terms of the method of research, it is a qualitative and quantitative mix More
        The purpose of this research is to explore strategies for developing knowledge-based employment in the country. The present research is applied to the research purpose, applied-development, and in terms of the method of research, it is a qualitative and quantitative mixture. In the first stage, using the Foundation Data Theory, a conceptual model has been used to explain the strategies for developing knowledge-based employment in the country. In the qualitative section, experts familiar with the issue of developing knowledge-based knowledge formed the statistical sample of research. According to the adequacy of sampling and theoretical saturation, 15 people were selected through purposeful sampling and bullet-shot sampling method. To analyze the data, a three stage, open, axial and selective coding process has been used. In the quantitative part of the research, the statistical population of the study included all the managers and experts of the companies of the students. The statistical sample of the research was based on the recommendations of the use of confirmatory models of 250 people. In order to collect data, a researcher-made questionnaire was used based on the sub-categories and the concepts derived from the qualitative research stage and based on the paradigm model. A confirmatory factor analysis has been used to analyze the data. The results of a small part of the research show that all validation models have been formulated appropriately. Manuscript profile
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        2 - Politics and Existentialism: A Study of Hannah Arnedt’s Approach to Action
        مصطفي  يونسي  
        The question of the present paper regards Hanna Arnedt’s ideas about human action. Is “action”, in Arnedt’s thought, merely an answer to the problems of the contemporary man, or what? The hypothesis is that Arnedt has an existentialist approach to “action”, and offers i More
        The question of the present paper regards Hanna Arnedt’s ideas about human action. Is “action”, in Arnedt’s thought, merely an answer to the problems of the contemporary man, or what? The hypothesis is that Arnedt has an existentialist approach to “action”, and offers it as a solution of disastrous crises upon the contemporary man. To test the hypothesis, we begin with the study of the concept of “action” in Arnedt’s thought, then we will see what existentialism is, and what its main principles are, and finally we will show the relationship between existentialist thoughts and Arnedt’s approach, contrasting her approach to “action” with the main principles of existentialism already made clear. Manuscript profile
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        3 - Comparative Study of the Analytical and Methodological Frameworks of Oil Studies and Politics
        سعید  میرترابی
        This paper aims to show that, during the past four decades, the literature on Rentier State, contrary to popular opinion, has not been consistent, whether in content or in methodology. Based on their methodological framework, the studies have been classified into two d More
        This paper aims to show that, during the past four decades, the literature on Rentier State, contrary to popular opinion, has not been consistent, whether in content or in methodology. Based on their methodological framework, the studies have been classified into two distinct types. The first generation of studies emerged in 1970s, but their failure at explaining the situation of oil-rich countries and clarifying the consequences of fall in oil incomes sever criticisms. The criticisms in connection with the first wave of the studies provided a ground to revise the methodology, and the way of conceptualizing foreign rents and their assessments. This resulted, particularly since 1990s, in the second wave of studies a wave that could be considered as revisionism. This approach brought new variables into the studies. It paid more attention to the historical background of oil-rich countries and the historical periods when oil incomes raised (with respect to the various stages of formation of the government and the regime in power). It focused on the interrelationship between oil rent and social and political condition of these countries, avoiding structural look to the oil rents. Some of the supporters of the new approach proposed new criteria for evaluation of oil incomes. This approach offered the possibility of more complex analyses, especially in the areas of political stability and democratic transition in the oil-rich countries, analyses that better explain different experiences of the oil-dependant states. Manuscript profile
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        4 - Arendt’s Political Thought and the Possibility of Change in International Relations
        Homeira  Moshirzadeh Arya Moknat
        According to mainstream IR theories and, in particular, realism, violence is and will remain to be an essential and inseparable part of international relations. All variations of realism view human nature and/or intentional system as inherently violent. Hannah Arendt’s More
        According to mainstream IR theories and, in particular, realism, violence is and will remain to be an essential and inseparable part of international relations. All variations of realism view human nature and/or intentional system as inherently violent. Hannah Arendt’s theory of political power as a non-violent and collective human action challenges this fundamental assumption and offers a new perspective on what constitutes the essence of politics. Arendt’s idea of “human condition” rejects all forms of essentialism with regard to human beings and opens up a theoretical space for a new understanding of international relations where human beings become the primary political agents (despite the fact that she sees the existing international relations more from a realist point of view). Contrary to mainstream IR theories in general, and to realism in particular, for Arendt the individuals, rather than the states, are ultimately the main players in international relations. In this paper, we bind different aspects of Arendt’s political thought together to offer a new theoretical perspective for a possible change in world politics. Manuscript profile
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        5 - Comparative Study Of late Payment Damage With Usury
        Babak Mohammad Rezapour Faezeh Jahani Moghadam
        In the world of exchanges and international trade which is based on the expansion of the banking system, the delayed payment penalty is accepted as a solution to the depreciation of the currency and also as a condition for the obligation to pay debts from customers in m More
        In the world of exchanges and international trade which is based on the expansion of the banking system, the delayed payment penalty is accepted as a solution to the depreciation of the currency and also as a condition for the obligation to pay debts from customers in most banking systems as well as in various legal rules. But this principle in Islamic countries has sometimes interfered with the concept of Reba, so that some jurists consider it as a Reba and have forbidden it. This principle has been widely debated in our country, but it has been accepted by the legislature as a principle. However, there are still many challenges regarding the legitimacy or lack of legitimacy of the principle of delayed payment penalty in the banking system. In this paper, it is attempted to address the reasons for the legitimacy of the delayed payment penalty in the banking system. Manuscript profile
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        6 - An Efficient Noise Removal Edge Detection Algorithm Based on Wavelet Transform
        Ehsan Ehsaeian
        In this paper, we propose an efficient noise robust edge detection technique based on odd Gaussian derivations in the wavelet transform domain. At first, new basis wavelet functions are introduced and the proposed algorithm is explained. The algorithm consists of two st More
        In this paper, we propose an efficient noise robust edge detection technique based on odd Gaussian derivations in the wavelet transform domain. At first, new basis wavelet functions are introduced and the proposed algorithm is explained. The algorithm consists of two stage. The first idea comes from the response multiplication across the derivation and the second one is pruning algorithm which improves fake edges. Our method is applied to the binary and the natural grayscale image in the noise-free and the noisy condition with the different power density. The results are compared with the traditional wavelet edge detection method in the visual and the statistical data in the relevant tables. With the proper selection of the wavelet basis function, an admissible edge response to the significant inhibited noise without the smoothing technique is obtained, and some of the edge detection criteria are improved. The experimental visual and statistical results of studying images show that our method is feasibly strong and has good edge detection performances, in particular, in the high noise contaminated condition. Moreover, to have a better result and improve edge detection criteria, a pruning algorithm as a post processing stage is introduced and applied to the binary and grayscale images. The obtained results, verify that the proposed scheme can detect reasonable edge features and dilute the noise effect properly. Manuscript profile
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        7 - An Intelligent Autonomous System for Condition-Based Maintenance- Case Study: Control Valves
        Hamidreza Naseri Ali Shahidinejad Mostafa Ghobaei-Arani
        Maintenance process generally plays a vital role to achieve more benefits to the enterprises. Undoubtedly, this process has a high value-added in oil and gas industries. Process owner expectations and new technology acquisition have been changing the mindset of domain e More
        Maintenance process generally plays a vital role to achieve more benefits to the enterprises. Undoubtedly, this process has a high value-added in oil and gas industries. Process owner expectations and new technology acquisition have been changing the mindset of domain experts to the new maintenance approaches and different newer methods such as condition-based maintenance models for improving the reliability and decreasing the cost of maintenance. Because of the high dynamic behavior of the gas and the instability of the input parameters, the need to apply a model with self-healing behavior is a serious demand in the gas industry. However, to the best of our knowledge, despite its importance, there is not any comprehensive study in the literature. In this paper, we present a new neuro-fuzzy model and a self-management control loop using real world data to meet the mentioned targets for a specified control valve in a gas refinery. ANFIS model is employed for the reasoning process which has six inputs (Inlet/outlet Pressures, temperature, flow rate, controller output and valve rod displacement), and one output that is a type of failure of the control valve and the most failures are considered based on domain expert knowledge. A suitable control loop is used to unceasingly monitor, analyze, plan and finally execute the process of prediction of failures. Due to undertaken improvement, there is a considerable change in reliability and financial indices. Moreover, the proposed approach is compared with two different methods. The results show that our proposed model comprehensively improves accuracy by 24%. Manuscript profile
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        8 - Jurisprudential and Legal Study of Provisos after Cancellation
        Seyed Mohammad Hadi  Saei Maryam  Saqafi
        Cancellation is reached when both parties have consent over the termination of the contract. This means the end of the contract effects and the resulting commitments. This, however, relates to the future; therefore, it is not like nullification of the contract. It does More
        Cancellation is reached when both parties have consent over the termination of the contract. This means the end of the contract effects and the resulting commitments. This, however, relates to the future; therefore, it is not like nullification of the contract. It does not have retrospective impact, and consequently it does not affect the pre-cancellation consequences. This point has been neglected by some and in their explanation of rules regarding provisos after cancellation they maintain that all conditions are nullified including attributes, performance and collateral events. Pursuant to this, the Civil Code in Article 246 stipulates that when a contract is terminated by mutual consent, its terms become null and void, whereas rules regarding and effects of each proviso are different and Article 246 shall not be attributable to all of them. This means that the condition of attribute is not within the prerogative of the said article and hence it is not nullified, but also it returns to the initial owner according to the subject of transaction. The condition of collateral events, due to its certain characteristics, is realized immediately after the conclusion of the contract, thus it cannot be nullified or waived either. In the meantime, only the condition of performance, either negative or positive, is nullified due to cancellation although it leaves behind consequences that are analyzable. Manuscript profile
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        9 - Legal-Jurisprudential Analysis of Conditional Sale Option in Relation to Transactions with Right of Restitution
        Saeed  Karami
        Abstract: There is divergence of opinions on contracting or pledging in optional sale. Imamiyah jurists endorse the act and consider it as an instance of sale in nature. Sunni jurists identify optional sale as bay’ al-Wafa or buyback sale, associating it with a pledge ( More
        Abstract: There is divergence of opinions on contracting or pledging in optional sale. Imamiyah jurists endorse the act and consider it as an instance of sale in nature. Sunni jurists identify optional sale as bay’ al-Wafa or buyback sale, associating it with a pledge (rahn) contract. The conditional sale can be analyzed in two ways: First, the conditional sale involving the contractual relationship between mortgagor (seller) and mortgagee (buyer) stipulated in Article 34 of the Law on Registration of Deeds; Second, the conditional sale that does not govern the contractural relationship between the seller and buyer, and it is a real sale under articles 485-462 of the Law. The conditional sale governing the contractural relationship between the mortgagor and mortgagee is an instance of transaction with the right of restitution (Article 33 of the Law). This is why the law has considered the request for registration of the property in conditional sale as a right for the debtor, because in this type of conditional sale the buyer does not intend to conclude a contract of sale. Any negligence of this criterion will raise ambiguities: First, any conditional sale will be taken as the one with the right of restitution, whereas it is otherwise. Second, the real conditional sale has been well stipulated in Article 399 of the Civil Code; therefore, all sales stipulated in Article 399 of the Civil Code must be considered as the transactions with the right of restitution. It is clear that the existence of the element of option in a sale contract does not mean it is an instance of transaction with the right of restitution. Articles 33 and 34 of the Law on Registration of Deeds are not exclusive to provisions of Article 459, because this article is not about the conditional sale governing the contractual relationship between the mortgagor and mortgagee, whereas articles 33 and 34 of the Law govern such relationship. Manuscript profile
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        10 - Legal Status of Contracts Contradicting Conditional Agreements
        Mohammad Mohammad Baramai Abbas  Asgari
        Abstract: Although in conditional contracts the effects of contract appear after realization of the conditionality of the contract, that does not mean the conditional contract lacks its effects before realization of the conditionality. Therefore, in alienative contracts More
        Abstract: Although in conditional contracts the effects of contract appear after realization of the conditionality of the contract, that does not mean the conditional contract lacks its effects before realization of the conditionality. Therefore, in alienative contracts, the effect of conditional contract before meeting its conditions shall be attributed to the buyer as a sort of conditional ownership. Perhaps it is because of such right for the promisee in the conditional contract (before meeting the conditions) that any contract contradicting with it may be pronounced non-effective or void. However, a review of the statements of evidence of each one of the three reasons for nullity, ineffectuality and authenticity of such contracts it can be claimed that any contract contradicting conditional contract is sound and valid. This, however, does not mean ignoring the promisee’s rights in conditional contract; rather, by virtue of the conditional contract, the object of transaction along with the buyer’s legitimate right in conditional contract will be transferred to the promisee as is. Of course, for final decision on the conditional contract, the parties should wait for the final status of the conditionality in the contract. In case of failure to meet the conditions, the real right of the buyer in conditional contract over the object of transaction will be null and void and when the conditions are met, one should see when the effects of the conditional contract will be valid. In the meantime, there should be a distinction between formation and validity of the contract vis-à-vis the promisee of the conditional contract. Manuscript profile
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        11 - A Study of Conceptual Authority in Discerning the Condition of Banning Halal and Authorizing Haram in Imamiya Jurisprudence
        Seyed Abolqasem  Naqibi Sajjad  Razaghi
        The condition of banning Halal and authorizing of Haram is one of the most important discussions in Imamiya jurisprudence. Jurists consider the proviso enforceable in case the condition does not ban Halal nor authorize Haram. There is difference of opinion among them on More
        The condition of banning Halal and authorizing of Haram is one of the most important discussions in Imamiya jurisprudence. Jurists consider the proviso enforceable in case the condition does not ban Halal nor authorize Haram. There is difference of opinion among them on conceptual authority in discerning the condition of banning Halal and authorizing Haram. Some jurists like Sheikh Ansari are of the opinion that the condition leading to authorization of an unchangeable rule on Haram and banning an unchangeable rule on Halal, shall be considered an instance of banning Halal and authorizing of Haram. Some other jurists, like Mohaqeq Yazdi and Nayini believe that the verdicts must first be divided into mandatory and conditional rules before expressing any authorization or banning. In mandatory rules, the late Naraqi – like Sheikh Ansari – only considers commitment to unchangeable rules (Wajib or religiously obligatory act and Haram or religiously forbidden) against the Book and Sunnah or tradition, however, commitment to act or avoid to act in permissible rules is allowed. Also, he says any change in conditional rules by setting a condition is against the Sharia law. Some other jurists, like Imam Khomeini, have resorted to the common law in expressing the quality of authority in its discernment. Manuscript profile
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        12 - Fundamentals of “Principle of Unconditionality of Commercial Paper Obligations” in Iran’s Jurisprudence and Law
        Akram  Safiri Farzaneh  Karimi
        The role commercial papers play in transactions and economic relations is this that they are appropriate substitutes for cash in payments. Along with easy, fast and safe transfer and turn-over, they guarantee the rights of the owner as well. Realization of this will be More
        The role commercial papers play in transactions and economic relations is this that they are appropriate substitutes for cash in payments. Along with easy, fast and safe transfer and turn-over, they guarantee the rights of the owner as well. Realization of this will be possible when obligations of the signatories of the papers are expressed absolutely and clearly, not conditioned to anything else. The prerequisites calling for unconditionality of commercial papers are considered among the fundamentals of this principle, which we have studied in this paper in two sections of “legal requirements” (the need for using commercial papers instead of cash, the need for meeting speed, ease and security in carrying and transfer of commercial papers and the need for protecting the rights of the commercial paper owners) and “jurisprudential requirements” (exigency of protecting property and preventing disruption in economic system). Manuscript profile
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        13 - Ethical valuation the conditions of spuses compeer islamic jurisprudence and legal
        Saleh  Farhadi Ajorlou Abolhasan Mojtahed Soleimani Seyed Ali Khazaei
        In Islam, the cornerstone of the healthy relationship between human beings has been based on morality and has always been considered a sacred morality in verses, traditions and religious orders. Accordingly, they have recommended them to comply with the ethical guidelin More
        In Islam, the cornerstone of the healthy relationship between human beings has been based on morality and has always been considered a sacred morality in verses, traditions and religious orders. Accordingly, they have recommended them to comply with the ethical guidelines in regulating human relationships before they bring them to the rule of law and rights. This feature is most commonly found in the family, which is the basis of the human community. Accordingly, if couples' relationships are governed by instruments and rights instead of being based on moral authority, the coldness and strain on the relationships of family members shadow, and life and life will be unflattering and void of joy and joy. Marriage and family formation are one of the fundamental guidelines of the Islamic religion. The purpose of marriage is to reconcile men and women together, to establish affection and affection among them, to cultivate couples and to create a suitable environment for the cultivation of competent children. Achieving these goals is only possible if there is a kind of fidelity and faithfulness between couples. In the term jurists, this type of adaptation and consistency between couples is referred to as "guardianship in marriage". The material that jurisprudents have raised in jurisprudential discussions regarding the issue of virtue and Qur'anic and narrative criteria indicates that the most important factor in the success of a marriage and the formation of a healthy and competent family, attention to the standard of religiosity and fidelity And moral and moral harmony between male and female are in faith. The findings of this paper show that the condition and the condition of being married are mutually exclusive and that they are both Muslims. It is also received from the infallibles of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) that faith, morality and good deeds will be two important factors in choosing the wife of the future. As these issues are examined from the point of view of the Imams and Sunni jurisprudents, at the end of the article, the answer to this important question is whether the spouses have a condition in terms of criteria and criteria other than Islam. Manuscript profile
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        14 - Confidentiality agreement: a reliable way to prevent disclosure of IPRs owners' confidential information
        Mostafa  Bakhtiarvand Akram Aghamohammadi
        IPRs owners, especially inventors, from the creation of idea up to its commercialization are often faced with disclosure of confidential information delivered to third parties during license agreement negotiations. In fact, the main purpose of confidentiality agreements More
        IPRs owners, especially inventors, from the creation of idea up to its commercialization are often faced with disclosure of confidential information delivered to third parties during license agreement negotiations. In fact, the main purpose of confidentiality agreements is to protect different types of IPRs including know-how, trade secrets, etc. with a view to prepare the background for proper and effective supervision and management of their exploitation. The use of non-disclosure agreements in high-tech sector, specifically for computer and internet companies is a common in license agreement negotiations. On the other hand, researchers and inventors in knowledge-based companies may be faced with challenges like disclosure of confidential information in the process of acquiring IPRs protection. The important point is the ignorance of many idea owners and inventors as to how such agreements are concluded. When delivering confidential information, non-disclosure agreement covers merely this information and is concluded for its protection before license agreement is concluded or during license agreement negotiations. Signing and entering into such agreements, without knowledge of laws and their characteristics, may cause dangerous and heavy obligations for parties. In this paper, with an analytic-descriptive approach, we define non-disclosure agreement, its necessity, function, types and common terms and conditions. The results of this paper indicate the necessity of delivering accurate and efficient information to IPRs owners regarding entering into confidentiality agreements and the need to modify the current legal structure in order to protect their rights. Manuscript profile
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        15 - Develop a Structural Model of Unconditional Self-acceptance, Rejection Sensitivity, Imagine the Future and Childhood Experience of Care in Working Children and Adolescents
        Narhes Ghasemi Yasser Rezapour Mirsaleh Mohammad Hadi Safi
        Child labor is one of the social ills of today's society. This study aimed to investigate a structural model of unconditional self-acceptance, rejection sensitivity, future expectations, and childhood experience care in working children. A correlational design using str More
        Child labor is one of the social ills of today's society. This study aimed to investigate a structural model of unconditional self-acceptance, rejection sensitivity, future expectations, and childhood experience care in working children. A correlational design using structural equation modeling was conducted. The statistical population of this study include the working child who lived in Yazd and Isfahan cities in 2020. A total of 160 children was selected using available sampling methid and answered to Chamberlin and Haaga’s unconditional self acceptance cale, Downey and Feldman’s sensitivity to rejection scale, Mcwhirter’s future expectations scale, and Bifulco, Brown and Harris’s childhood experience of care questionnaire. The findings showed that unconditional acceptance had a negative and significant effect on sensitivity to rejection (P<0.05). Childhood experience of care had a negative and significant relationship with future expectations while being positively and significantly related to sensitivity to rejection. Likewise, rejection sensitivity had a significant and negative effect on future expectations (P<0.05). The results did not support the direct effect of unconditional acceptance on future expectations. Regarding the results, it can be concluded that improving childhood care, reducing sensitivity to rejection, and working on the unconditional acceptance of these children, helped to improve their lives. Manuscript profile
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        16 - Effects of Stoic Logic on the Development of the Concepts and Technical Terms of the Discussion of Conditional Propositions in the Islamic Period
        Amin  Shahverdi
        Afnan and Sami al-Nishar believe that Islamic philosophers found access to the main texts of Stoic thinkers during the translation movement. Nevertheless, Josef van Ess maintains that Muslim philosophers were exposed to Stoic teachings in the course of the cultural inte More
        Afnan and Sami al-Nishar believe that Islamic philosophers found access to the main texts of Stoic thinkers during the translation movement. Nevertheless, Josef van Ess maintains that Muslim philosophers were exposed to Stoic teachings in the course of the cultural interactions between Muslims and the residents of newly conquered regions. In the present paper, after criticizing these two ideas, the writer agrees with Dimitri Gutas’s view regarding the indirect impact of Stoic logical doctrines through the works of such logicians as Galen and Alexander of Aphrodisias. Then, by examining the concepts and technical terms which are employed by Stoic logicians in the analysis of conditional propositions and reasonings, he investigates the effects of such concepts and terms through the works of the above-mentioned logicians in the development of certain concepts such as conflict, necessity, and exception. Manuscript profile
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        17 - The Role of Muslim Peripatetics in the Development of Aristotelian Logic
        Akbar  Faydei
        Before Aristotle, some of the topics in the science of logic had appeared in a scattered form in the words of the great Zeno, Plato, Socrates, and some Sophists. However, Aristotle was the first scholar to compile theoretical logic and classify its topics into related p More
        Before Aristotle, some of the topics in the science of logic had appeared in a scattered form in the words of the great Zeno, Plato, Socrates, and some Sophists. However, Aristotle was the first scholar to compile theoretical logic and classify its topics into related parts and chapters in a book. Based on his own epistemological principles, he propounded predicative logic. From among his most important logical ideas, we can refer to predicative reasoning and categorical syllogism. After Aristotle, another school of logic entitled Stoic-Megarian was developed in Greece by other logicians such as Philo, Diodorus, Megari, Zeno, and Chrysippus. Unlike Aristotelian logic, this new school dealt with conditional logic. Megarians’ detection of compound conditional syllogisms and Stoics’ detection of other compound syllogisms, such as conjunctive and disjunctive propositions and the forms of connected and disconnected syllogisms, created conditional logic. Therefore, the logical legacy of Greece consists of two Aristotelian and Stoic-Megarian Schools. Muslim Peripatetics, who were well-aware of Greeks’ logical legacy, diverted from the method of Greek philosophers in devising the science of logic. In addition to reducing some logical problems, such as the problem of categories, the differentiated discussion of poetry, rhetoric, and dialectics, as well as some changes in other areas such as conversion, and descriptive definitions, they played an influential role in the development and advancement of the science of logic. In this paper, some of these changes have been discussed. Manuscript profile
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        18 - A Review of the Nature of Modes and their Signification of the Composition of the Subject of the Modal (Focusing on Mir Damad’s Views)
        Mohammad Hadi  Tavakkoli
        The importance of modes in philosophy is to the extent that some have considered them as the fundamental bases of philosophy. One of the philosophical issues connected with the discussion of modes is the discussion of “composition”. Mode of any type signifies the existe More
        The importance of modes in philosophy is to the extent that some have considered them as the fundamental bases of philosophy. One of the philosophical issues connected with the discussion of modes is the discussion of “composition”. Mode of any type signifies the existence of some kind of plurality. This is because the criterion for being qualified by a mode is not exactly the same as the criterion for being qualified by another one. Therefore, the modes abstracted from a single subject (whether having real or mentally-posited unity) indicate the existence of a kind of multiplicity in the subject itself (in the conditional mode) or in the affairs outside the subject (in the causative mode). Being compound is one of the kinds of multiplicity in subject. In this paper, the author intends to provide a review of the problem of modes and the discussions prior and posterior to them. Manuscript profile
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        19 - Project Performance Management Based On Fuzzy Approach Under Uncertainty
        Alireza Ghanbari Houshang Taghizadeh Soleyman Iranzadeh
        project management is the application of process, method, knowledge, skills and equipment to meet project requirements. Project performance management and measurement is one of the most important roles of project managers. Earned Duration Management (EDM) technique as a More
        project management is the application of process, method, knowledge, skills and equipment to meet project requirements. Project performance management and measurement is one of the most important roles of project managers. Earned Duration Management (EDM) technique as a project management methodology is the most recent methodology in this area which unlike former techniques, use time-based data for measuring project performance which derives more realistic result in performance measurement. A novel approach proposed in this article is based on fuzzy approach which is capable to measure project performance under uncertainty using EDM methodology. in this regard, linguistic terms are used for expressing activities progress and development of EDM metrics. also, ranking fuzzy numbers in this research, out of different methods, is based on relative preference relation, however it is complicated but it reserves fuzzy messages. The proposed approach is implemented is a real sample in road construction project and the result are described. Manuscript profile
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        20 - Assessing the effect of macroeconomic shocks on systemic risk of the banking system using the SVAR model in Iran
        ali ostadhashemi seyed jalal sharif ali Souri
        In this study, we have used the total capital market index (TEDPIX) as an index of the real sector of the economy and the index of banks and credit financial institutions as an index that explains the developments of the banking system. Also, oil revenues, exchange rate More
        In this study, we have used the total capital market index (TEDPIX) as an index of the real sector of the economy and the index of banks and credit financial institutions as an index that explains the developments of the banking system. Also, oil revenues, exchange rate uncertainty, tax revenues, liquidity, nominal interest rates, inflation uncertainty and GDP have been used as macroeconomic variables in the research period (1370-1396). To estimate the systemic risk of the banking system, the quarterly data of the banks' index is used and the value at risk of the return of the seasonal data of the index is estimated using an exponential GARCH model. In order to model the interaction of macroeconomic variables and systemic risk of the banking system, an unrestricted vector autoregression (VAR) model was estimated and then using instantaneous impact functions and based on Chulsky analysis, systemic risk response to other variables was investigated and analyzed. In order to identify the channels of impact of economic shocks on the systemic risk of the banking system, based on the structures of the Iranian economy, a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) model was specified and then the instantaneous impact functions were extracted and the effect of macro variable shocks on the systemic risk of the banking system was investigated. Also, the effect of systemic risk of the banking system on macroeconomic variables was investigated and analyzed using instantaneous impact functions. Finally, the interaction model of macroeconomic variables and systemic risk of the banking system was approved using the vector autoregressive model. Manuscript profile
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        21 - A New Combined Strategy for Estimation of Individual Power Quality Parameters Using Adaptive Neural Network
        H. R. Mohammadi A. Yazdian Varjani H. mokhtari
        With respect to increment of power quality problems and also increasing application of sensitive devices to such problems, the power quality enhancement becomes a serious concern. The series-shunt and combined compensators can be used for compensation of voltage, curren More
        With respect to increment of power quality problems and also increasing application of sensitive devices to such problems, the power quality enhancement becomes a serious concern. The series-shunt and combined compensators can be used for compensation of voltage, current, or both voltage and current. One of the most important stages for precise and optimized compensation of power quality parameters is the fast and accurate estimation of individual parameters. In this paper, a new combined strategy based on a unified adaptive estimator is proposed which is capable of detection and accurate estimation of individual power quality parameters. In comparison to other estimation methods, the proposed method has a simple structure, low computation, high precision and is capable of individual power quality parameters estimation. Therefore, the proposed method can be used for on-line application such as selective compensation in series, shunt active power filters, and unified power quality conditioner. The exclusive properties of the proposed strategy will be shown by simulation results in transient and steady state conditions. Manuscript profile
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        22 - A New Configuration of Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Simultaneous Compensation in Adjacent Feeders
        H. R. Mohammadi A. Yazdian Varjani H. mokhtari
        In this paper a new configuration of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is proposed. In this new configuration, by adding a series converter in an adjacent feeder, the abilities of the UPQC are enhanced. The proposed configuration can be applied to adjacent feeder More
        In this paper a new configuration of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is proposed. In this new configuration, by adding a series converter in an adjacent feeder, the abilities of the UPQC are enhanced. The proposed configuration can be applied to adjacent feeders to compensate for supply voltage and load current imperfections on the main feeder and fully compensation of supply voltage imperfections, especially interruption, on other feeder. In this configuration two series and one shunt converters are used which all are voltage source converters (VSC). All VSCs are connected back to back on the DC side and shared a common DC-link capacitor. The proposed configuration offers the following advantages: 1) Power transfer between two adjacent feeders for sag/swell and interruption compensation. 2) Using one shunt VSC for current compensation in main feeder and voltage regulation of common DC link capacitor between all VSCs. The simulation results obtained in PSCAD/EMTDC on a two bus/two feeder system show the effectiveness of the proposed configuration as well as the adopted control system. Manuscript profile
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        23 - Design of Proportional-Integral Sliding Mode Controllers for Hyperchaotic Systems in the Presence of Uncertainty, Disturbance and Nonlinear Control Inputs
        A. Abooee M. R. Jahed Motlagh Z. Rahmani
        In this paper, robust controllers for a new hyperchaotic system are investigated in the presence of uncertainty, disturbance and nonlinear control inputs. The controllers are designed by considering two major goals: first to stabilize the hyperchaotic system in the pres More
        In this paper, robust controllers for a new hyperchaotic system are investigated in the presence of uncertainty, disturbance and nonlinear control inputs. The controllers are designed by considering two major goals: first to stabilize the hyperchaotic system in the presence of uncertainties, disturbance and nonlinear control inputs; and second, to guarantee the prescribed disturbance attenuation, considering the defined performance index for it. Sliding mode control by defining three proportional integral switching surfaces is used to reach mentioned goals. Numerical simulations are used to exhibit the feasibility and performance of the proposed method. Manuscript profile
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        24 - A New Approach for Modeling and Global Optimum Solution of Transmission Expansion Planning Including Contingency Conditions
        A. Nateghia H. Seifi Mohammad Kazem Sheikh El Eslami S. M. Sepasian
        ts cause different neural responses containing a regular firing, or a long latency before firing with or without a leading spike. In this paper, the firing behavior of DCN pyramidal cells is simulated first Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is an important issue of More
        ts cause different neural responses containing a regular firing, or a long latency before firing with or without a leading spike. In this paper, the firing behavior of DCN pyramidal cells is simulated first Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP) is an important issue of power system planning studies. In literature, different methods are investigated to achieve good solutions for TEP. This paper uses Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) methods to study TEP. It also presents a new NLP model in which the integer variables are omitted. Moreover, the models are properly modified so that contingency conditions are also observed. Different combinations of cost functions such as the expansion cost, the operation cost and the cost of the losses are considered and compared. To reach a global optimum solution, BARON solver is applied. The proposed algorithm is applied on Garver 6-bus and IEEE-118 bus test systems. It is shown that modeling the problem by MINLP and NLP methods, in combination with a proper solver, can result in a quick optimum solution. Manuscript profile
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        25 - A New Unified Power Quality Conditioner based on Trans-Z-Source Inverter
        M.  Siahi Mohammad Davoodi
        Unified Power quality conditioner (UPQC) consists of back to back voltage source inverters. In UPQC combination of parallel and series active power filters are used to compensate for the nonlinear load current harmonics and voltage distortions, simultaneously. For appro More
        Unified Power quality conditioner (UPQC) consists of back to back voltage source inverters. In UPQC combination of parallel and series active power filters are used to compensate for the nonlinear load current harmonics and voltage distortions, simultaneously. For appropriate performance of both converters and bidirectional power flow, the DC link voltage should be at least 1.41 times larger than the line to line voltage in the high voltage part of the system; i.e. the parallel active filter. One of the determining factors for the cost of semiconductors is the maximum tolerable voltage stress. The voltage stress of the series converter increases when the DC link voltage is high. In order to overcome this deficiency, a Z-source network is added to the common structure of back to back invertors in the UPQC. It will reduce the applied DC voltage to the series active power filters significantly and decrease the cost of manufacturing. In this structure, an impedance source network is used in an AC/DC inverter to produce a buck-boost effect. Additionally, dead time has been eliminated through the use of a Z source network in the parallel active filter and thus its performance and reliability has increased impressively. In this paper, a comparison study has been conducted through necessary simulations for the performance evaluation of the common and proposed structures. The total switching device power has been used as a criteria to confirm the manufacturing cost reduction in the proposed structure. Manuscript profile
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        26 - Studying Management Support Status of Training and Development in Tehran’s Municipality
        mahmood abolghasemi
        The fundamental aim of this study is investigating level of managers’ support from employees training and development in the municipality of Tehran. The study employed a mixed method research in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected using interview and More
        The fundamental aim of this study is investigating level of managers’ support from employees training and development in the municipality of Tehran. The study employed a mixed method research in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected using interview and questionnaire. In this study, interview was conducted, by using purposive sampling, 8 training managers and questionnaires conducted by using stratified random sampling, 61 managers and 315 employees were selected. The qualitative data were analyzed using the descriptive, analytical and interpretive method. To analyze quantitative data, one-sample T test, independent T test and MANOVA was used. The research findings show that the most areas of supporting are: the resource allocation (time and proper equipment) for using learning content in workplace. The most important supporting level from the perspectives views of employees and managers are: to help to increasing the level of interest and motivation of employees to training and the opportunity use of training benefits (financial benefits, certification. Also the research findings showed that from the perspective of managers and employees, the most important barriers of managers’ support were high workload. For motivating employees to attend in training courses and sufficient support of training by managers also suggested that senior manager play as a template Manuscript profile
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        27 - Identification of Casual and Contextual Conditions for Teachers’ Training while Working
        Ala Solaleh Nouri Parivash Jafari Nadergholi GHourchian
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal conditions and contextual condition to teachers’ training while working on the part of the special school of Tehran, Iran. In this qualitative study based on grounded theory (GT), data were collected by review of r More
        The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal conditions and contextual condition to teachers’ training while working on the part of the special school of Tehran, Iran. In this qualitative study based on grounded theory (GT), data were collected by review of related texts and semi-structured interviews with 47 (to achieve theoretical saturation and maximum dependability) informant individuals (Present and past managers, teachers and educational experts of special schools) selected through purposive sampling. Data analysis was done using open, axial, and selective coding. The results of the study showed that the two categories are the casual condition for teachers’ training while working 1-individual characteristics (individual aptitude and capacities, internal motives, sense of meaning and purpose in work). 2-characteristics of the teacher's job (the necessity of continuous growth in teaching, the human-nurturing obligation of teachers, the attempt at continuous vocational betterment, the opportunity for the application of acquired knowledge, and the significance of idea development and creativity). The contextual conditions include: 1- Organizational culture (interaction quality, learning opportunity, feedback system, decision-making style, emphasis on innovation), 2- Role patterns (influence of pioneers, principals as learning models, ambition, job engagement), 3-Organizational support (taking the material and spiritual benefits of teachers into account), 4- Quality and quantity of educational programs (consistency between educational, goals, content, methods, evaluation, and facilities). Thus, if the workplace becomes a learning location, learning while working will lead to a constant development in our organization and ourselves Manuscript profile
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        28 - The Relationship between Stress Management Training and Employees Self-Efficacy
        Nasrin Asadi Amineh  Ahmadi Assadollah  Abbasi
        The purpose of this study was to provide a model of stress management training and its relationship with employees' self-efficacy. In terms of applied purpose, this research was a combination of exploratory data (qualitative and quantitative) and in terms of research im More
        The purpose of this study was to provide a model of stress management training and its relationship with employees' self-efficacy. In terms of applied purpose, this research was a combination of exploratory data (qualitative and quantitative) and in terms of research implementation, it was a grounded theory approach (qualitative stage) and in terms of quantity, it was a cross-sectional survey. The study population in the qualitative section includes Professors and academic experts (psychology and social medical management specialists), according to the entry and exit criteria in the qualitative section and in the quantitative section including experts and managers who had taken stress management training. Sample size and sampling method in qualitative part based on the principle of theoretical saturation of 12 people using purposive sampling method and in quantitative part according to Cochran's formula 220 employees of Zanjan, Qazvin and Mazandaran Universities of Medical Sciences and the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2020 using a multi-stage sampling method. To collect data, a semi-structured interview method and a researcher-made questionnaire were used and in a quantitative section of the General Schwarvar and Jerosalm General Self-efficacy questionnaire (1992).To evaluate the validity and reliability of qualitative section data, credibility, conformability and transferability criteria were used. content validity and the opinion of several experts were used to confirm the validity of the tool in the quantitative part. The reliability of the questionnaires was calculated according to Cronbach's alpha formula. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the researcher-made education questionnaire was 0.84 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.81 self-efficacy questionnaire, indicating that research tools have desirable reliability. In the qualitative part, the content analysis of the interviews was used to analyze the data, using the coding method (open, axial and selective coding), confirmatory factor analysis, heuristic factor analysis, structural equations and descriptive statistics were used. Then regression analysis was used to measure the relationship between coping methods with self – efficacy. The results showed that to deal with stressful situations, three basic strategies of problem-focused coping strategy, emotion-focused coping strategy and avoidance-focused coping strategy can be used for the stress management training model. In general, the components presented to deal with stressful situations have the necessary and appropriate validity, and all three main components (problem-focused coping strategy, emotion-focused coping strategy and avoidance-focused coping strategy) were in a good position to explain and fit.In this research, the questionnaire of coping with stressful conditions was valid and approved. Strategies for coping with stressful situations had a different effect on people's self-efficacy, so that problem-oriented coping strategy had a significant positive relationship with self-efficacy and the effect of problem-oriented coping strategy was on incremental self-efficacy (P <0.05). In other words, the more emphasis is placed on problem-oriented coping strategy, the more self-efficacy of individuals increases, and in contrast to emotion-focused coping strategy and avoidant-centered coping strategy has a negative and decreasing relationship with self-efficacy (P <0.05), As the emotion-focused coping strategy and avoidance- focused coping strategy highlighted ,the self - efficacy of individuals also decreased Manuscript profile
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        29 - Propsing new approach for litho-facies modeling by use of Markov Chain method , an Iranian oil field
        هانیه  نیکو گفتار
        Reconnaissance and interpretation of underground heterogeneity, particularly litho-facies,always plays an important role in evaluation and management of hy dro carbon resources.between various methods presented for modeling discrete characteristics of More
        Reconnaissance and interpretation of underground heterogeneity, particularly litho-facies,always plays an important role in evaluation and management of hy dro carbon resources.between various methods presented for modeling discrete characteristics of hydrocarbon reservoies such as litho-facies ,One with a more proper con formity with actual condition of reservoie facies is of great ad vantage . formed on basis of pro bability and presenting transition matrix, markov method is widely applied as a powerful tools for modeling the facies .In the present study , first the method is introduced in details; then, in order to optimize it, suggestion is made based on changing the type of the move of chain in simulation procedure. the case study is a 12 km long 110 m thick section of Anhydrite and three major members of asmari Formation from an oil field, South-West Iran.This section is modeed through Markov procedure and proposed solution .The models set indicated that on basis of using the deta from two wells and five seis mic horizons, best result ,with 90% accuracy , is for reciprocatng motion. Manuscript profile
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        30 - Propsing new approach for litho-facies modeling by use of Markov Chain method , an Iranian oil field
        هانیه  نیکو گفتار بهزاد تخم چی عباس بحرودی غلامحسین  نوروزی
        Reconnaissance and interpretation of underground heterogeneity, particularly litho-facies,always plays an important role in evaluation and management of hy dro carbon resources.between various methods presented for modeling discrete characteristics of More
        Reconnaissance and interpretation of underground heterogeneity, particularly litho-facies,always plays an important role in evaluation and management of hy dro carbon resources.between various methods presented for modeling discrete characteristics of hydrocarbon reservoies such as litho-facies ,One with a more proper con formity with actual condition of reservoie facies is of great ad vantage . formed on basis of pro bability and presenting transition matrix, markov method is widely applied as a powerful tools for modeling the facies .In the present study , first the method is introduced in details; then, in order to optimize it, suggestion is made based on changing the type of the move of chain in simulation procedure. the case study is a 12 km long 110 m thick section of Anhydrite and three major members of asmari Formation from an oil field, South-West Iran.This section is modeed through Markov procedure and proposed solution .The models set indicated that on basis of using the deta from two wells and five seis mic horizons, best result ,with 90% accuracy , is for reciprocatng motion. Manuscript profile
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        31 - Coastal and marine tourism scheme in the Coast of Ramsar (based on choice of tourists)
          Hamid Amirnejad Mohammad 
        The profits of the coastal tourism industry are such that many people would invest in it. Considering the potential of the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, this study measured the views of tourists to improve the factors of the coastal industry. With a random sample More
        The profits of the coastal tourism industry are such that many people would invest in it. Considering the potential of the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, this study measured the views of tourists to improve the factors of the coastal industry. With a random sample in the city of Ramsar, this study used a choice experiment model and advanced econometric regressions such as conditional Logit. The aim was to improve the utility of tourists and to suggest a functional model for the development of Ramsar coastal tourism by creating sustainable employment. To develop models, we conducted field interviews on Ramsar beaches in the spring and summer of 2018. The results showed that improving the sanitation facilities and the recreational facilities plus beach prospects had a positive impact on the ultimate utility of the tourists. The tourists would spend forty percent more if the current situation improved by fifty percent. To develop a desirable model for tourists, our recommendations to the investors were to improve: a) the beach and sea landscape 25 percent; b) the health and wellness facilities 50 percent; c) the recreational facilities 50 percent. Manuscript profile
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        32 - The willingness of tourists to pay for services in rural tourism destinations
        Hamdollah  Sojasi Qeidari حمیده محمودی Atefe jomeei
        Tourism-baed development would only takes place if local communities are provided with the revenues earned from visiting tourists who are willingly pay for tourism services offered. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the willingness of toursits visiting the vi More
        Tourism-baed development would only takes place if local communities are provided with the revenues earned from visiting tourists who are willingly pay for tourism services offered. This study, therefore, sought to investigate the willingness of toursits visiting the villages of Shandiz city in Binalood town to pay for tourism services offered there. Being a descriptive-analytic research, the study used conditional evaluation method and logit model to measure the pay willingness rate. Vikor model was also employed to identify the spatial differences among the tourists in terms of their willingness to pay for the services they received. The population of the study comprised of eleven villages which were visited throughout 2018 by 96 visitors who were selected as the participants of the study according to Cochran formula with 0.1 error rate. The results of the stusy indicate that tourists tends to spend an average of 776540 Rials (equal to 6 USD) in the villages they visit. Taking the the total willingness of the visiting tourists to pay for the services for a full day into account, commercial facilities, catering, recreation, and residential facilities were the most willingly paid services respectively. Moreover, based on the Vikor model, tourists spend more money in Virani village as more services are offered there in terms of restaurant, catering, and residential facilities. Manuscript profile
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        33 - Investigating the effect of climate on the residential fabric of Yasuj
        Amir  Aminzadeh Ali Reza Rast
        The history of design and construction, according to the criteria of natural and climatic features in traditional Iranian architecture, reaches hundreds of years and is considered one of the architectural masterpieces in the world. The growth of technology and access to More
        The history of design and construction, according to the criteria of natural and climatic features in traditional Iranian architecture, reaches hundreds of years and is considered one of the architectural masterpieces in the world. The growth of technology and access to fossil fuels has led to the neglect of climatic standards in housing construction. This study examines the urban context of Yasuj city and climate, and by examining the housing characteristics of old, middle and new textures of this city, the compatibility of the three textures with the climatic conditions of Yasuj city, the density of buildings will be evaluated. In order to use natural forces in regulating the environmental conditions inside the building and reflection in the formation of the urban context, climate recognition is an important issue in architectural and urban design. In this research, the types of climates are introduced and the effect of climate on the formation of urban fabric and residential architecture is described and depicted. Manuscript profile
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        34 - The Effect Of The Global Spread Of The Corona Disease On The Tendency Of The International Arbitration System To Conclude Virtual Arbitration Agreements And Terms And To Implement The Obligations Arising From Them
        Reza Shahidi Sadeghi Ashraf Janati
        Arbitration is one of the methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes in national and international disputes. In the current era, the issue of international commercial arbitration has become especially important due to the speedy settlement process and the relativ More
        Arbitration is one of the methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes in national and international disputes. In the current era, the issue of international commercial arbitration has become especially important due to the speedy settlement process and the relative reduction of dispute resolution costs, including related issues, the issue of concluding an agreement and the clause of virtual arbitration and how to performance its obligations in this space. Due to the challenges in the process of concluding traditional arbitration agreements so far, and especially with the widespread outbreak of coronary disease (Covid-2019) and the disorder in the arbitration community, it is desirable to conclude arbitration agreements in cyberspace as a non-presence agreement. Has been found to have a significant impact on the order of the world arbitration system and is a good model for improving the process of concluding of dispute resolution agreements, and in particular arbitration agreements or clauses. Advances in the field of cyberspace technology and creating a fundamental change in the field of international trade law, in particular, increasing the facility and speed of disputing traders in concluding an arbitration agreement in cyberspace and performance the obligations arising from it, the purpose of writing this article is descriptive-analytical Is written. Despite this dangerous disease and as a result, serious challenges in the effective face-to-face interaction of the parties involved in arbitration, concluding an arbitration agreement and arbitration clause in cyberspace and performance its obligations are legally permissible, but due to lack of explicit rules and regulations. In the discussion of domestic arbitrations, the rules and regulations ruling on traditional arbitration will be inforcemented. Manuscript profile
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        35 - A Critical Look at Judges' Civil Liability in Iranian Jurisprudence and Law
        Shaghayegh  Shaghayegh shamsi Abedin momeni
        According to Article 171 of the Constitution, if a judge causes damage to another as a result of a mistake or fault in a case or in a sentence or in the application of a sentence to a particular case, he is the guarantor in case of fault. Otherwise, the compensation i More
        According to Article 171 of the Constitution, if a judge causes damage to another as a result of a mistake or fault in a case or in a sentence or in the application of a sentence to a particular case, he is the guarantor in case of fault. Otherwise, the compensation is done by the government. It seems that the principle of government responsibility for the judge's mistake in jurisprudential books was due to the necessity of ijtihad in judges, and jurists based on this condition the verdict issued by the judge was considered his fatwa and they believed that the judge rules by his ijtihad, so they put the responsibility for compensation on the treasury. But the important point is that he should not be granted judicial immunity, because everyone has a responsibility wherever he is, and he should be held accountable for that position and his mistakes, and the judge, like other members of society, is paid for the act of judging and this does not cause the government, which has no worker-employer relationship with the judge, accept compensation for the damages caused by act them. Therefore, the purpose of writing this article is to critique the judicial process in the civil liability of judges and to compensate the damages from the government. The research method in this study is analytical-descriptive and the method of collecting information is library and documentary. Manuscript profile
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        36 - Facies analysis and sedimentary environment of the Jeirud Formation in Garmabdar section, central Alborz: with emphasis on paleoredox conditions during deposition of black shales
        Nahid Karimi Najmeh  Etemad-Saeed Aram Bayet-Goll Afshin  Zohdi Tomas Kumpan
        The late Devonian has been associated with major global climate changes, widespread anoxia events, and the Hangenberg Crisis. The main aim of this study is to explore the relationship between paleoenvironment and paleoredox condition during deposition of the lower Devon More
        The late Devonian has been associated with major global climate changes, widespread anoxia events, and the Hangenberg Crisis. The main aim of this study is to explore the relationship between paleoenvironment and paleoredox condition during deposition of the lower Devonian Jeirud Formation in the Garmabdar section, northeast of Tehran. The Jeirud Formation in the Garmabdar section, with a thickness of about 280 m, is composed of siliciclastics, carbonates, carbonate-siliciclastic hybrids and phosphorite deposits. Sedimentary facies analysis led to recognition of three siliciclastic facies associations related to estuarine environments under the influence of waves, shoreface and offshore and two carbonate facies associations related to intertidal and subtidal environments. Moreover, the geochemical paleoredox proxies (such as U/Th and V/Cr) also suggest prevailing anoxic conditions during deposition of black shales and phosphorites in the studied section. In overall, these results suggest that there is a good agreement between the depth of the depositional environment and anoxic conditions during deposition of black shales of the Jeirud Formation. Manuscript profile
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        37 - An Analysis of Dissolving Condition based on Evidence of Conditional Sale in Iranian Law and Imamiyah Jurisprudence
        Alireza  Abin
        A broad interpretation of the dissolving condition indicates that it is a condition realization of which revokes undertaking(s) between the obligor and the obligee and cancels the contract or other similar legal instruments from the beginning (with a retroactive effect) More
        A broad interpretation of the dissolving condition indicates that it is a condition realization of which revokes undertaking(s) between the obligor and the obligee and cancels the contract or other similar legal instruments from the beginning (with a retroactive effect). There is no express legal text on the rule of dissolving condition in domestic standing laws. This has given birth to diversified reasoning by the legal experts. Moreover, in legal terms, the approach followed by Imamiyah jurists vis-à-vis this legal institution is not identical so that some consider it problematic based on such evidences as principle of definitiveness of conditions, inconsistency of dissolving condition with requirement of nature of condition and lack of legality of evidences on conditions. On the contrary, some believe in the soundness of the institution of dissolving condition based on the legality of the evidences on conditions. This paper is devoted to analysis of consequent opinions and approaches of experts to finally put forth its selected viewpoint on feasibility of soundness and use of such institution in Iranian law and Imamiyah jurisprudence and prove legal soundness of its application on attachment of Articles 232 and 233 of Civil Law to Articles 10 and 975 of the same law. However, it seems that the generality of evidences on conditions prove legality of conditions in creating or destroying the legal effects. Manuscript profile
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        38 - Typology of Rules of Quran and Tradition in Comparing and Contrasting Criterion of Contradiction in Principle of Conditions
        Mohammadreza  Khalilzadeh
        The important status of the principle of conditions in jurisprudence and the rights of undertakings is something clear. The recent version of this principle excludes conditions countering the Book (Holy Quran) and tradition. Identifying the conditions countering the Boo More
        The important status of the principle of conditions in jurisprudence and the rights of undertakings is something clear. The recent version of this principle excludes conditions countering the Book (Holy Quran) and tradition. Identifying the conditions countering the Book and tradition and putting forth a regulation to help the experts in Islamic law, jurists, and in cases the judges in comparing and contrasting instances of contradiction to the Book and tradition, will be very helpful. The classification of orders by the Book and tradition into positive and imperative rules, and the imperative rules into mandatory and non-mandatory, the researcher came to know the difference in the existence of criterion contradictory to the Book and tradition. This paper has embarked on typology of Quran and tradition and presenting a criterion for readdressing the condition contradictory to the Book and tradition. Manuscript profile
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        39 - The impact of electric cars on the environment
        Syed Mani Hashemi Seyed Majid  Keshavarz
        Abstract Like many other human activities, the construction and operation of electric machines, in addition to its benefits, has a negative impact on the environment, especially pollution. According to these cases, it is possible to discuss about the moment of pollut More
        Abstract Like many other human activities, the construction and operation of electric machines, in addition to its benefits, has a negative impact on the environment, especially pollution. According to these cases, it is possible to discuss about the moment of pollution, if the amount of pollution depends on the size of the device, which of the stages of the existence of the device has more pollution than the other stages (construction, operation and dismantling). And how to reduce the environmental impact. In the construction of electric machines, a series of materials are used to make the electrical system (winding), the magnetic system and also. Necessary materials for making the mechanical structure and car insulation. All these materials are the result of complex processes, energy consumption and more or less pollution. Once obtained, these materials are subjected to mechanical processing and produce various pollutants along with the resulting components. Manuscript profile